IKBFU's Vestnik

2021 Issue №3

History. Historical sciences 3997 4127 4199 4259 4341 4456 4813 4842 4910 5022 5025

Attempts to reform the financial system of the German Empire in the early XX century

Abstract

Preparation for the World War I at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries challenged various national financial systems. The German Empire faced this challenge, so its finances bad to be regularly strengthened in order to cover all the mass military needs. After O. v. Bismarck’s resignation, the positions of the chancellor were held by politicians who did not have any background in economics and finance: L. v. Caprivi, H. Hohenlohe-Schillingsfuerst. The problem was passed then to new Head of the German Government – Bernhard von Buelow, who was the Reichschancellor from 1900 till 1909. By this time a large-scale project, dedicated to creation of powerful navy (since 1897), was already – in progress. New Reichschancellor’s Government tries to stimulate the financial system of the country, however, without much progress. Reforms of the German financiers of that time have been the issue to study by Russian or foreign scientists. This article is concerned with the task of examination of these reforms taking place in 1904 and 1906.

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"Petits portraits" by Louis-Leopold Boilly and their significance for studying the history of the era of the Premier Empire and the Restoration

Abstract

This article is devoted to so-called “small portraits” (“petits portraits”) of the famous French painter Louis-Léopold Boilly. We based it on published and archive French sources to show the importance of "small portraits" as the sources to explore the period of the Premier Empire and Restoration. Identification of these portraits with the help of historical and comparison method provides the possibility to explore specific social group of this epoch. The author made analysis of the portrait from Marmottan Monet museum and in accordance with the documents of Gray Musketeers 1814-1815 from S.H.D. discovered the name on the portrait.

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Writer Sergei Snegov and the politics of memory in the Kaliningrad region (1950―1970s)

Abstract

On the basis of previously unexplored archival documents and materials of the regional press, the author considers the history of the creation of the “novel about Kaliningrad” by S. А. Snegova “Wind from the Ocean”, as well as the historical plots of the work. By analyzing the minutes of the meetings of the Kaliningrad branch of the Writers' Union, the editorial councils of the Kaliningrad book publishing house and reviews of writers on several versions of the manuscript, the mechanism of using fiction as a tool for the politics of memory is revealed. Comparison of several versions of the manuscript with each other, as well as with the published text of the work, made it possible to reconstruct the original concept of the novel and its changes in the course of editorial changes, comments and self-censorship over the course of eleven years. Having ordered the famous writer S. A. Snegova, a novel on contemporary topics, the regional publishing house and the leadership of the local writers' organization carefully monitored and adjusted the character of the author's presentation of the pre-war history of the city and the images of Soviet Kaliningrad. In the absence of an approved regional historical narrative and fears of making political mistakes, the oversight authorities forced the author to abandon several storylines devoted to the history of the edge. As a result, the work, originally conceived as a story about the fate of the city and its inhabitants in the past and present, turned into a production novel, traditional for Soviet literature, telling about the achievements and problems of ocean fishing and the daily life of Kaliningrad fishermen.

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The racial issue in the context of the activation of intraparty pressure groups in Great Britain in the 1950―1960 s

Abstract

The relevance of the article is connected with the evolution of the racial issue, which includes a large amount of different social problems. These problematic developed after the Second World War and still stay a very important. This article provides an analysis of the evolution of special lobbies in British political system, and their influence on the creation of political decisions in this sphere of migration in 1965. The research was created in the functional paradigm, which provides to explore relationships between government structures and political currents of Tories. Based on unexplored proclamations of lobbying groups there was created an assumption, that the structural design of these pressure groups and the formation of their internal committees were the keys factors that allowed lobbyists to achieve their goals. In their work, this club and another right wing lobbies used «migration and racial map» as a tool of political struggle.

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