Diachronic changes in the system of adversary conjunctions of the French languageAbstract
The article analysies complex and ambiguous historical processes in the system of adversative сoordinators at the early stage of the development of the French language (IX—XVI centuries). After having analyzed the data of the Old and Middle French subcorpuses of the French National Corpus Frantext with distributive, functional-semantic, logical-semantic and contextual instruments and the transformation method, the author established quantitative and qualitative changes in the system of adversative сoordinators in the indicated periods. It is revealed that the gradual disappearance of the сoordinator ainz 'but', the growth of the use of the сoordinator mais 'but' and the emergence of new units with a specialized adversative meaning seulement 'only', néanmoins 'for all that', nonobstant 'despite', cependant 'meanwhile', toutefois 'however, nevertheless', au contraire 'on the contrary', pourtant 'however' are interdependent processes and reflect the growing tendency towards analyticism in the language. Two non-identical ways of using new adversative units are established, which are functional equivalents of the adversative сoordinator mais ‘but’. The author defines the assimilation of the semantic and combinable properties of new units to the adversative сoordinator mais ‘but’ (a combination of two components, the content of which is either opposed or modified). New units with an adversative meaning can act as concretizers of the сoordinator mais ‘but’ in the Middle French language.