Typoligocal diversity of the strongholds of Russian coastal borderlands: (theoretical and conceptual aspect)
In the late XX — early XXI centuries, the growth of marine activity is one of the most obvious and significant global trends. The multidimensional "turn" to the Sea is fully inherent in modern Russia. The article attempts to comprehend and conceptualize the effects of the spatial concentration of the national "marine" economy, as well as its complex formation and clusterization in the framework of the conceptual development of the "strongholds of coastal borderlands", understood as a special socio-geographical (economic-geographical and, at the same time, geo-economic, geopolitical) compact formation in the structure of the coastal zone. The essential features of the "strongholds" are identified, including its "focus", "amphibian", contact, cross-border nature, compatibility of structural elements, priority of infrastructure functions, conjugation with other similar "strongholds of coastal borderlands", geo-economic and geopolitical significance. The most important typological characteristics of the "strongholds of coastal borderlands" are emphasized: "place" (position), "weight" (including the actual marine economy), functionality, and economic structure. Priority attention is paid to the dynamic aspect of the typology-the grouping of "strongholds of coastal borderlands" in the dichotomy "stability-variability", "development-degradation". The conceptual and theoretical generalizations are illustrated by concrete examples of the spatial dynamics of Russia's marine activity and the corresponding typological groupings of its "strongholds of coastal borderlands".