IKBFU's Vestnik

2021 Issue №2

Functional and communicative aspects of the analysis of sen­tence models: model and (con) text

Abstract

The paper considers the main schools of communicative-functional analy­sis model of the sentence, the most significant function of which is determin­ing interrelation between semantic and syntactic organization of the sentence and the context (text, discourse, communicative register, functional style etc.) it is functioning in. The importance in the primary text analysis is headlined, considering contribution in its semantic structure of semantic models. The authors also give and interpreted some results of the analysis of the represen­tation of structural-semantic types of sentences in texts belonging to different functional-style varieties of the Russian language.

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Intonological aspect of the vocal form of the language (on the example of the Russian choir)

Abstract

The article studies intonation features of vocal form of the language. The melody of national opera music reveals inherent prosodic corrrelation with the language intonation units and their features. The two cognitive systems, namely music and language, function via intonological models (the ones char­acteristic of both music and speech) of perception. Although the vocal music melody of a national language is not fully identical to speech intonation pat­terns acoustically, it still includes a number of intonation features that are perceived by the listener as characteristic of his or her native language. Opera is a form of language music realization, which makes it a subject of psycholin­guistic studies. The author considers this issue in view of phonological ap­proach. Intonation units, referred to as «intonemes» in a language system, re­alize themselves as “melodemes” in the system of Western European music modes. According to the concept presented in this article, distinctive features of communicative and emotional meanings manifest themselves in repetitive use of a certain harmoneme in the motive of a phrase. The paper presents the findings obtained from studying the melody of Russian opera choirs by means of music and linguistic intonation analysis. The author has revealed the tendencies in expressing emotional meanings and discovered harmonic diffe­rences between the motive patterns (melodemes) of minor and major choir.

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On the problem of acausal semantic coinciden­ces: the cognitive background of omens

Abstract

The authors study the issue of acausal semantic coincidences (synchro­nicity) for the first time as omens of war in the Russian linguocultural tradi­tion. The semiotic structure of omens is shown, and models of transformations of situational semantics in their signifier and signified are revealed. In partic­ular, symbolic substitutions are possible in the signifier, and a sequence of metonymic shifts in the causal field of war in the signified. In general, the phenomenon of synchronicity, considered in connection with the omens of war, is proved to be real. The omens of war are, in fact, a kind of synchronic coincidences in objective reality, subjected to cognitive reformation in the sub­jective sphere of human mentality.

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On some trends in the foreign vocabulary assimilation process in the modern German language

Abstract

Nowadays foreign vocabulary pronunciation regardless of the language is one of the highest priority issues. This is especially urgent for the German language because foreign words, spelt in Latin alphabet, retain their orthogra­phic image.

The article studies phonetic assimilation processes of those foreign words and loanwords from different languages in the modern German language which are pronounced in accordance with the norms of the English language pronunciation. The author analyses foreign phonemes on the material of the modern German print media. The processes which occur while borrowing for­eign words on phonetic and phonological levels are examined and analyzed in close connection with the norm of the receiving language.

The research reveals the tendencies how the English language influences the foreign words and loanwords in the modern German language irrespective of the word origin. The results of the present study have both theoretical meaning value for the linguistic aspect, they are significant for evaluating the processes which are intensively occurring in the time of information sciences technology, and also important for the German language teaching.

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The terms «clinical recommendations», «clini­cal guidelines», «diagnostic and treatment protocol»: a comparative analysis of definitions

Abstract

The study analyzes the definitions of terms that name the main regulato­ry documents for top-level medical personnel: “clinical recommendations”, “clinical guidelines”, “diagnostic and treatment protocol”. The article com­pares the terminological phrases with the keywords “recommendations”, “management” and “protocol”, multicomponent units that name specific va­rieties of these documents. It was revealed that a large number of syntagmatic connections of the main term and its derivatives (attributive and substantive) explains the coexistence of many derived units, which complicates the profes­sional communication process. All terms are divided into semantic groups in accordance with the semantics of dependent words. The studied regulatory documents are characterized by a common goal, functions, are similar in terms of composition and text structure, though they belong to different types of documentation. An analysis of the definitions showed that the “clinical rec­ommendations”, “clinical guidelines” and “diagnostic and treatment proto­col” have a different set of relevant (constitutive, basic) features of the docu­ment. A comparison of the definitions of the three main types of documents — recommendations, guidelines and protocol — showed that these terms can not be called either synonyms or quasi-synonyms, since they are characterized by belonging to the same part of speech, partial coincidence of valency, but do not match in their interpretation. These terms can be used in different conditions: recommendations — in case of dispositive use, guidelines — in the case of im­perative compliance with the rules for using the document, protocols — in case of adaptation of the first two documents to medical practice of specific medical institutions, in hospital practice.

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Peculiarities of the English loanwords top-, VIP- functioning in the modern Russian language

Abstract

The paper describes some aspects of English loanwords top- and VIP- in the modern Russian language. The morphological status of the components depends on their derivative value in the donor language (analytical adjective, prefixoid) or according to the derivational model of the recipient language (ra­dixoid, affixoid, root). It is substantiated that the prepositive component top- acts as a sociopragmatic marker with the value of the highest position held by the compared objects in various ratings. High derivational activity of the component is attributed to the extralinguistic factor, which is the principle of competitiveness characteristic of the consumer society. Formed from the ab­breviation with the meaning "very important person", the prepositive compo­nent VIP- is included in numerous derivatives as an element that sets the stratification of society.

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