IKBFU's Vestnik

Philology, pedagogy, and psychology

Linguistics

Functional and communicative aspects of the analysis of sen­tence models: model and (con) text

Abstract

The paper considers the main schools of communicative-functional analy­sis model of the sentence, the most significant function of which is determin­ing interrelation between semantic and syntactic organization of the sentence and the context (text, discourse, communicative register, functional style etc.) it is functioning in. The importance in the primary text analysis is headlined, considering contribution in its semantic structure of semantic models. The authors also give and interpreted some results of the analysis of the represen­tation of structural-semantic types of sentences in texts belonging to different functional-style varieties of the Russian language.

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Intonological aspect of the vocal form of the language (on the example of the Russian choir)

Abstract

The article studies intonation features of vocal form of the language. The melody of national opera music reveals inherent prosodic corrrelation with the language intonation units and their features. The two cognitive systems, namely music and language, function via intonological models (the ones char­acteristic of both music and speech) of perception. Although the vocal music melody of a national language is not fully identical to speech intonation pat­terns acoustically, it still includes a number of intonation features that are perceived by the listener as characteristic of his or her native language. Opera is a form of language music realization, which makes it a subject of psycholin­guistic studies. The author considers this issue in view of phonological ap­proach. Intonation units, referred to as «intonemes» in a language system, re­alize themselves as “melodemes” in the system of Western European music modes. According to the concept presented in this article, distinctive features of communicative and emotional meanings manifest themselves in repetitive use of a certain harmoneme in the motive of a phrase. The paper presents the findings obtained from studying the melody of Russian opera choirs by means of music and linguistic intonation analysis. The author has revealed the tendencies in expressing emotional meanings and discovered harmonic diffe­rences between the motive patterns (melodemes) of minor and major choir.

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On the problem of acausal semantic coinciden­ces: the cognitive background of omens

Abstract

The authors study the issue of acausal semantic coincidences (synchro­nicity) for the first time as omens of war in the Russian linguocultural tradi­tion. The semiotic structure of omens is shown, and models of transformations of situational semantics in their signifier and signified are revealed. In partic­ular, symbolic substitutions are possible in the signifier, and a sequence of metonymic shifts in the causal field of war in the signified. In general, the phenomenon of synchronicity, considered in connection with the omens of war, is proved to be real. The omens of war are, in fact, a kind of synchronic coincidences in objective reality, subjected to cognitive reformation in the sub­jective sphere of human mentality.

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On some trends in the foreign vocabulary assimilation process in the modern German language

Abstract

Nowadays foreign vocabulary pronunciation regardless of the language is one of the highest priority issues. This is especially urgent for the German language because foreign words, spelt in Latin alphabet, retain their orthogra­phic image.

The article studies phonetic assimilation processes of those foreign words and loanwords from different languages in the modern German language which are pronounced in accordance with the norms of the English language pronunciation. The author analyses foreign phonemes on the material of the modern German print media. The processes which occur while borrowing for­eign words on phonetic and phonological levels are examined and analyzed in close connection with the norm of the receiving language.

The research reveals the tendencies how the English language influences the foreign words and loanwords in the modern German language irrespective of the word origin. The results of the present study have both theoretical meaning value for the linguistic aspect, they are significant for evaluating the processes which are intensively occurring in the time of information sciences technology, and also important for the German language teaching.

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The terms «clinical recommendations», «clini­cal guidelines», «diagnostic and treatment protocol»: a comparative analysis of definitions

Abstract

The study analyzes the definitions of terms that name the main regulato­ry documents for top-level medical personnel: “clinical recommendations”, “clinical guidelines”, “diagnostic and treatment protocol”. The article com­pares the terminological phrases with the keywords “recommendations”, “management” and “protocol”, multicomponent units that name specific va­rieties of these documents. It was revealed that a large number of syntagmatic connections of the main term and its derivatives (attributive and substantive) explains the coexistence of many derived units, which complicates the profes­sional communication process. All terms are divided into semantic groups in accordance with the semantics of dependent words. The studied regulatory documents are characterized by a common goal, functions, are similar in terms of composition and text structure, though they belong to different types of documentation. An analysis of the definitions showed that the “clinical rec­ommendations”, “clinical guidelines” and “diagnostic and treatment proto­col” have a different set of relevant (constitutive, basic) features of the docu­ment. A comparison of the definitions of the three main types of documents — recommendations, guidelines and protocol — showed that these terms can not be called either synonyms or quasi-synonyms, since they are characterized by belonging to the same part of speech, partial coincidence of valency, but do not match in their interpretation. These terms can be used in different conditions: recommendations — in case of dispositive use, guidelines — in the case of im­perative compliance with the rules for using the document, protocols — in case of adaptation of the first two documents to medical practice of specific medical institutions, in hospital practice.

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Peculiarities of the English loanwords top-, VIP- functioning in the modern Russian language

Abstract

The paper describes some aspects of English loanwords top- and VIP- in the modern Russian language. The morphological status of the components depends on their derivative value in the donor language (analytical adjective, prefixoid) or according to the derivational model of the recipient language (ra­dixoid, affixoid, root). It is substantiated that the prepositive component top- acts as a sociopragmatic marker with the value of the highest position held by the compared objects in various ratings. High derivational activity of the component is attributed to the extralinguistic factor, which is the principle of competitiveness characteristic of the consumer society. Formed from the ab­breviation with the meaning "very important person", the prepositive compo­nent VIP- is included in numerous derivatives as an element that sets the stratification of society.

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Literary Studies

Poetry as a space for cognitive research: Czesław Miłosz and Howard Nemerov

Abstract

The article is focuses on the interaction of artistic and scientific discours­es: scientific thinking into poetry. Based on two poems (Dom filozofa by Czesław Miłosz and The Painter Dreaming in the Scholar’s House by How­ard Nemerov), the author examines the possibilities of thinking about cogni­tive problems in the space of poetry. Reincarnating as their characters (philos­opher and artist), Miłosz and Nemerov work in the subject area of professional cognitive scientists, they reproduce the process of analytical thinking.

The article studies the poetic cognitive schemes that create a mental im­age of reality. Cz. Miłosz and H. Nemerov build a similar route for the verbal representation of the world. The process breaks down into several elements like nomination, categorization, conceptualization and a spatial map of reality (mental image). Nemerov on behalf of the artist creates a map-type representa­tion while Miłoszʼs philosopher accentuates the temporal component of the spatial image, proposing a linear path-map.

The poets conclude that it is not the eye that makes the world visible, but verbal thinking, which translates all empirical facts into verbal signs. The thinker's task is to incorporate the visual image into the mental construct, to create the topology of the world, not represented in the world itself.

Finally, the author considers the value of Miłosz and Nemerov’s texts for modern culture and states that they are illustrations for cognitive research,  generators of scientific ideas and they create the marginal area of contempo­rary cognitive science; meanwhile there is an uncertainty whether the mor­phological type of language in which “scientific” poetry is created influences thestylistic features of the texts.

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Ontology of the «new world» in the work of Frie­drich Hölderlin (to his 250th anniversary)

Abstract

The work raises the issue of Hölderlin’s creative secret of, interpreting its connection with the transformation of German culture into ontology of “new light”. Considering the essence of the “poet of poets” (Heidegger), the authors relate complex discourses to the hermeneutic key for understanding the mys­tery of Hölderlin. They make an attempt at interpreting one of the mysteries in his work, reflected in the novel "Hyperion". The article draws conclusions about the action of “new light” in this novel and other works of Hölderlin. The secret of Hölderlin is interpreted through the standpoint of some theories of Russian cosmism.

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The formula «If there is no God, everything is allowed» in the poetic interpretation of Czeslaw Milosz

Abstract

The article considers the specific perception of Dostoevsky's creativity in poetry and essays by Milos. The author studies Milosz's multiple reinterpre­tations of the precedent formula “If there is no God, everything is allowed” in the poems “If not”, “Meaning” and “Oeconomia divina”. It is concluded that the poems under study form a "triptych", where the leading role is played by dialectics of word and silence.

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The image of the pilot in the eschatological vision «The Great Divorce» K. S. Lewis

Abstract

The author considers the image of the guide and its artistic interpretation proposed by C. S. Lewis in his eschatological vision “The Great Divorce”. The article traces different approaches to distinguishing the genre of the book and establishes the relation between the transformation of the genre of eschatologi­cal vision and the image of the guide in it. The purpose of the article is to pro­vide a thorough characteristic of the image of George MacDonald (the guide) in “The Great Divorce” by C. S. Lewis. To meet this purpose, the main func­tions of this image have been described as well as the means of its text repre­sentation and peculiar properties of the relations between the main character and his guide in C. S. Lewis’ eschatological vision.

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«The images of water» in the structure of oniric spaciopoetics of K. Ishiguro’s novel «The buried giant»

Abstract

The article is dedicated to the spatial organization of one of Ishiguro's lat­est novels "The Buried Giant". The authors focus on the process of changing of the aesthetic paradigm taking place in modern prose and affecting the foun­dations of its poetics. Special attention is paid to that kind of changes in the spatio-temporal organization of the text. Its peculiarity in Ishiguro's novel is the artistic synthesis of the surreal elements (mythopoetics, space of memory, the loci of consciousness, intertextual inclusions), which is nominated as on­iric space (J. Faryno). It is created along with the images appearing in the pro­cess of recollecting in characters’ minds as a result of including multifunc­tional images of the sea and other water objects. Those images are traditional and unique at the same time. In this regard, the transgression of archetypal images and their artistic functions in the novel are investigated.

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On the Old Believers in the literary heritage of M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin

Abstract

The article examines M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin’s views on the phenome­non of the Old Believers. The research establishes the sources for the writer to study the everyday life and religious characteristics of the adherents of "old piety", and also highlights the background of the Western philosophy that in­fluenced the writer’s perception of their image. The article focuses on mutual­ly exclusive characteristics of the Old Belief in the author's concept and makes a conclusion about the predominantly negative perception of the “schisme” in the work of M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin.

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