The article offers a comparative analysis of phraseological units with the component cердце / cœur / Herz in the Russian, French and German languages. As a result, not only the similarity of semantic attraction in the idioms of the languages of unrelated families is revealed, but also the factors that determine the difference in the semantic charge of both nuclear and differential semes. The proposed corpus of illustrative material allows us to solve a number of problems of the national-cultural field of phraseological units of the Russian, French and German languages, to determine the universal and national-specific features of the phraseology of these languages, to reveal the peculiarities of the worldview and worldview of Russians, French and Germans. The choice of somaticisms cердце / cœur / Herz contributes to the most accurate description of the emotive component as one of the leading in the semantic structure of the compared phraseological units and to the identification of factors that determine the use of phraseological units in speech. A methodological set for semantic comparative analysis of phraseological units in Russian, French and German makes it possible to identify semantic universals and specific national features of phraseological units, as well as to analyze the linguistic and extralinguistic reasons for the similarities and differences of phraseological units in the studied languages. Component analysis of the studied phraseological units gave a clear picture of the commonality of potential semes “сердце, cœur, Herz” in unrelated languages.