Moscow and its region: structural and functional transformationsAbstract
The article shows various structural-functional transformations of Moscow and its region generated by the changes in mode of production in Russia as a result of ‘perestroika’ as well as of the results of a combination of global changes triggered by the Fourth industrial revolution (hereafter the STR-4) and by the change in Russia’s geopolitical role in the modern world. The author identifies the main trends as Moscow’s dependence on global geopolitical transformations, growing spatial and other forms of mobility resulted in a decline of its population’s reflection. At the same time, the Greater Moscow is being shaped through the integration of Moscow and its ‘periphery’, a gap between the rich and poor is widening, and the phenomenon of a ’Deep Russia’ independent form Moscow is emerging. Such mega-cities usually see their ‘periphery’ as the supply of a labor force and the waste processing sites. As a result, a social asymmetry has emerged: Moscow is developing and becoming wealthier while their periphery has got exhausted and loses its social capital. The general outcome of this process may be seen in an intense merge of natural, social and technical structures that results in a transformation of modern mega-city into a very complex sociobiotechnical system (hereafter the SBT-system) which regularities and dynamics have to be carefully investigated. It requires a close integration of natural, social and technical sciences, and an urban metabolic concept. An ethos of an interdisciplinary study based on equality of social states of different sciences, their interest to study the complex issues and the ability for mutual understanding of various scientists is to be developed.