Ultrasound elastometry of the spleen (review)
Measuring spleen stiffness is an insufficiently described diagnostic method, although it allows to diagnose some of internal diseases. The purpose of the paper is to study the influence of various factors on the obtained values of spleen stiffness. The authors gave an overview of the relevant publications in the RSCI and PubMed databases and well-acknowledged textbooks. Spleen elastometry is not described in current clinical guidelines, so the authors of publications rely on their own research methods and get different results. The authors provide a systematization of the research methodology, the values of stiffness for the norm and in the conditions of various diseases. Factors affecting the results of stiffness measurement in healthy volunteers (the patient's position, food intake, respiratory phase, number of measurements) were identified, which resulted in mean values of spleen stiffness. It was found that spleen stiffness does not depend on gender, height, body weight, and body mass index. The study reveals a range of diseases in which the spleen stiffness is significantly higher than normal values, and it includes liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, esophageal varicose veins Grade III and portal vein obstruction. A discussion to develop a consent opinion on the research methodology and normative values of spleen stiffness will certainly support the further study.