The humanities and social science

2020 Issue №2

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The issues of the post-war demobilization of military officers (1945—1948)



The article analyses demobilization of officers of the USSR armed forces after the Great Patriotic war in 1945—1948. Six mobilization rounds were carried out to reduce the size of the Armed Forces during this period, and more than 1.3 million officers were dismissed. The original idea was to retain the officers special for their moral and professional qualities, who have no re­strictions on health and age. All demobilized were given remuneration, the necessary documents, and the relocation was paid by the state. Meanwhile, the unprecedented and immense demobilization led to certain challenges in social­ization for the returned front-line soldiers. Archive documents and oral sources demonstrate a military impact on employment, attitude to studies, the state, creating an image of the desired future. It is shown that in terms of em­ployment, returning officers had clear advantages being appointed to leader­ship positions in various institutions, young officers could return to universi­ties and technical schools. The article emphasizes the difficult fate of those who were dismissed for injuries and disabilities, many of whom turned to begging. The influx of shell-shocked people greatly worsened the criminal situation in the country. The state devastated by the war was simply unable to socially provide for and employ such a large number of demobilized people in a single step. Gradually, over time, a significant part of the demobilized was able to adapt socially to a peaceful society.