Formation of the cultural landscape of the modern Kaliningrad region in the stone ageAbstract
The authors reflect on the interaction of nature and society in the territory of the modern Kaliningrad region in the Stone Age. Natural factors played a decisive role in the formation of the region’s cultural landscape. In the Stone Age, anthropogenic changes in the natural environment were minimal and were mainly noticed in separate components of the natural landscape. At the boundary of the Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods, megafauna species — mammoths, woolly rhinos and turs — disappeared from the territory of the region. The reindeer population decreased significantly and completely disappeared in the middle of the Mesolithic. Changes in the fauna were caused by both natural and anthropogenic factors. It is difficult to trace the anthropogenic effect on vegetation before the Late Neolithic when floodplain agriculture (though not everywhere) started playing an auxiliary role. Favourable natural conditions in the Mesolithic-Neolithic periods contributed to the formation of a complex adaptive type of economy, characterized by sustainability.