IKBFU's Vestnik

Philology, pedagogy, and psychology

Linguistics

The Masonic Word: Types and Functions

Abstract

In the sources that guide the Masons, and in the sources that they pro­duce themselves, the term “Word” dominates in the meaning of a “text, an idea or a communicative unit”. This determines the importance of the re­search. Its purpose is to identify the characteristics of the perception of the Word by the Masons, that is, to discover the typology of the unit and its func­tions. To achieve the goal, the methods of semantic, contextual and communi­cative analysis were used, allowing in their totality to propose, prove and for­mulate a holistic perception of a structurally complex unit. The main results of the study include the following. Firstly, the the authors established the ty­pology of the word: the Word of God, the Lost Word, the Master’s Word, the Mason’s Word, the Poetic Word Secondly, the functions of the Word were de­termined: identifying, conspiratorial, magical, creative, enlightening. Thirdly, it was stated that the Word in the perception of the Freemasons became an ideal, an object and a tool. At the same time, the instrumental function, that is, one’s own practice in the framework of the real world, implied a mystical desire for an ideal, that is, the Word of God, and rational and mystical know­led­ge of an object, that is, the Lost Word.

Download an article

English and Russian evaluative adverbs

Abstract

The paper proposes an approach to determine correspondences between the relevant pairs of Russian and English evaluative adverbs. It has resulted in a list of Russian and the corresponding English pairs of adverbs. Chains of quasi-synonymous words linking the adverbs are constructed. An important feature of antonyms is the fact that negatively-oriented antonyms are marked with respect to the positive ones. The different methods for the determination of semantic metrics in the Osgood’s space are described. Usage of geodesic dis­tance between two arbitrary words enables introduction of unambiguous met­rics over the set of Russian (axes X) and English (axes Y) adverbs. Coordi­nates of antonyms and those synonyms which connect antonymous pairs are displayed in the two-dimensional English-Russian bilingual space.

Download an article

The Praed model sentences: meaning and speech functions.

Abstract

The study of formal samples of sentences in the real modern colloquial speech is one of the topical linguistic problems. Having considered the classi­cal and modern research papers, the author examines the grammatical status of uninflected words, which are the main members of the sentences of the Praed structural scheme. The author considers that such words should be classified as predicative adverbs rather than a special grammatical category. The article proposes a semantic typology of such adverbs functioning in mod­ern colloquial speech. The author concludes that the sentences of the Praed structural scheme are used in everyday communication for transmitting both objective (dictum) and subjective (modus) information. They are used to re­flect the state of a person or the environment, to express the attitude of the subject of speech to the speech situation, to characterize the degree of his con­fidence in the transmitted information. Most often, such sentences are used by the subject of speech to generalize and at the same time emotionally assess the speech situation. The pattern of the sentences expressing different human states is expanded by introducing subjective modifiers into it. The sentences expressing different situational states must include adverbial modifiers.

Download an article

Variability of stress in the past tense verbs, short participles and short adjectives

Abstract

The study established a wide verb stress variety, and stated the ambiguity of their dictionary fixation. The authors consider the traditional opposition of feminine gender verb forms to the other gender verb forms as a stable trend. The authors also denote a new opposition of the neutral gender verbs, marked as acceptable younger norm, with the type of accent paradigm a/c 2, 3. Wide variatian is also observed in short passive participles, free stress participle­forms are also common. A complex and variable system of free stress is also characteristic of short adjectives. The ambiguity of verb stress in the student speechis established.

Download an article

Semantic invariants of prophetic dreams and signs

Abstract

The authors prove the possibility of revealing semantic invariants of pro­phetic dreams and folk signs. The study shows that such invariants do exist, and they stay with the other side of the language, belong to the deep sphere of human mentality (unconscious), have a special sign nature (they are both se­mantic signs and images). From this point of view, the problem of synchronic­ity — acausal semantic coincidences, is considered. The article suggests that the domain of semantic invariants of dreams will be close to quantum reality, which is of particular interest to researchers today.

Download an article

Linguistic Means of achieving coherence in the regional certify­cation documentation in the middle of the 18th century

Abstract

The article analyses the means of cohesion in documents of general char­acter. The research material is the mid-18th century certificates and passports kept in the «Ataman of Michailovskaya Stanitsa» Fund of the Volgograd Re­gional State Archive. It is established that the texts of certificates and pass­ports are different in their choice of cohesion means in the text. The certificates are characterized by a specific means of cohesion — the repetition of the names of the responsible persons in the initial and final paragraphs of the document. The specificity of the certificates textual modality makes them focused on an event in the past, which means that retrospect of the text is enhanced. At the same time, connectivity between text fragments is provided by anaphoric pro­nouns and deictic means. The peculiarity of the passport is that it is intended to present the document in the future and implies the availability of more in­formation, for this reason the passport texts are more narrative, and character­ized by retrospection and prospection. This implies a wider composition of the means of cohesion: lexical repetitions, pronouns in the cataphoric function, various deixis means, and discursive words.

Download an article

A. V. Makedonov and A. A. Palshkov. The history of an episto­lary (based on the correspondence stored in the Literary Museum archive of SmolSU)

Abstract

The article is based on the late 1975 correspondence between A. V. Make­donov, the famous Soviet critic, literary scholar and A. A. Palshkov, the direc­tor of Literary museum in Karl Marx Smolensk State Pedagogical Institute (currently Smolensk State University). The paper considers the history of pre-publishing preparation of an article containing extracts of N. I. Rylenkov's letters. Our analysis of the epistolary discourse has revealed a complicated situation characteristic of those years, when due to the efforts of the SSPI Chair of Literature a serious work was launched to thoroughly study creations of Smolensk poets listed by A. V. Makedonov as members of the Smolensk Po­etic School (the term itself was initiated by A. V. Makedonov as far back as in 1960), and particularly its "founding fathers" − M. V. Isakovsky, A. T. Tvar­dovsky, N. I. Rylenkov. Some points of A. V. Makedonov's article, which con­tained a selection of Rylenkov's letters brightly characterizing many Soviet writers and chronicles of the literary life of the 20th century 60s, caused a dis­cussion within the editorial board responsible for Smolensk collection. This discussion itself was the focal point of A. A. Palshkov's correspondence. The interlocutors' interpersonal relations as well as techniques of their academic debates in the epistolary discourse make an issue of great interest. The materi­als used in the article are new to academic publications.

Download an article

Speech representation of the category of authorship in mo­dern Serbian journalism

Abstract

The article reveals the specificity of the speech representation of the au­thor’s category in the texts of contemporary Serbian publicists, devoted to the most acute and topical events in the life of Serbia’s domestic policy, in par­ticular to the events of the election race and the results of the presidential elec­tions in 2017. Particular attention is drawn to the ways of representing this category through the aggression in the authors’ speech. The purpose of the study is to determine the vector of modernization of the authorship category in Serbian journalism, due to the prevailing public mood in connection with the political situation in the Balkans. The empirical material of the study is pre­sented in the texts of the key periodicals of Serbia — the oldest Belgrade news­papers, Politika (Politics) and Vechernye novosti (Evening News), as well as the political publication Danas (Today), Vreme (Time) and Nedeljnik (Weekly). Analysis of the material makes it possible to talk both about the prac­tices of creating potential aggressive installations and directly using speech aggression, i. e. injective vocabulary in the speech, manifestation of ob­jects of this aggression in the texts. The research concludes that the specificity of the authorship category representation in Serbian journalism turns out to be connected with the modern psychological state of the nation, the peculiari­ties of the national mentality, which, in turn, determines the key features of the author-journalist, speaking from the position of a author-national.

Download an article

Literature Studies

The archetypal space of the palace in E. Zola’s novel «The La­diesʼ Paradise»

Abstract

The article reveals the connection between the artistic space of the natu­ralistic novel with the archetypical forms of mentality and culture. The author used the structural-semiotic method of text analysis, as well as the analysis of archetypical images that are regularly repeated in the European cultural expe­rience. The concept of “archetype” in literary analysis is proved to be neces­sary. Among other things, using of this concept makes it possible to free the study of the text from the need to take into account polemic statements and aesthetic manifests of the authors. Besides, this approach gives an opportunity to analyze the text as such and to distinguish between historical reminiscences and allusions and archetypical models, as well as between current influences and generally valid archetypes. Special attention is given to the image of the Palace and to its spatial model, which works in the novel as a specific mean­ing-generating mechanism. The image of the Palace is viewed through its his­torical importance for the second half of the XIX century. It is as well regard­ed in its archetypical function, which organizes the artistic structure of the novel. Besides, the archetypical function of the image of the Palace makes it possible to bring the text to a new unrealistic level of generalization for the XIX century. This approach is very important to a historian of literature, be­cause it allows to explain some aspects of the aesthetical commonality in the naturalist style and in the modernist style, while these two literary trends are traditionally opposed

Download an article

Enigma of magnetism in the mys­tery of the romantic spirit of E. T. A. Hoffmann (based on the novel «Der Mag­netiseur»)

Abstract

The novel “Magetizer” is viewed within the intellectual and ideological context of E. T. A. Hoffmann’s era, who was characterized, on the one hand, by the progress of scientific knowledge, and on the other, by the success of imagi­nary parascientific concepts. In particular, the authors trace the connection of Hoffmann's artistic thought with the ideas of Mesmer and the secret knowledge of Freemasonry popular at the beginning of the XIX century, which Hoffmann interprets as a threat to the world described by Christian on­tology and anthropology. In the artistic and philosophical interpretation of Hoffmann, the prevalent parapsychological practices are the components of the technology of evil in its eternal struggle against good.

Download an article

Cognitive space of the Russian romance

Abstract

The article contains a short history of the term “romance” and the genre of Russian romance, describes the problems of studying the romance. Russian romance is presented as a social-cognitive construct with a particular set of historically and culturally conditioned cognitive indicators. A comparative analysis of the texts of the Russian romance and Russian lyrical songs re­vealed the national characteristics of the lyric song, as well as the cognitive characteristics peculiar to the romance: focus on feelings, emotions, portrait creation, descriptiveness, etc.

Download an article