IKBFU's Vestnik

Philology, pedagogy, and psychology

Linguistics

Language as a person's achievement and as a self-organizing system

Abstract

The article explores the basic properties of language as a person’s achieve­ment. The author proceeds from the interpretation of language pro­posed by L. V. Shcherba and A. A. Zalevskaya, in which language is represent­ed as a so­cio-personal continuum of linguistic phenomena of different ontolo­gy. The pur­pose of the article is to describe the basic properties of human lan­guage as a complex self-organizing system of processes. Active and subjective character of reality and knowledge representation in human mind determines the main pro­perties of language. The author offers a definition of language correspond­ing to this approach and describes the differences between anthro­pocentrism and anthropomorphism in linguistics. The author investigates the role of ‘hu­man factor’ in the analysis of different linguistic phenomena.

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The concept of WILL in the semantics of deontic modality

Abstract

The article is a result of the theoretical interpretation of the conceptual component of Will in the semantics of deontic modality expressing the atti­tude to one's own or other people’s actions to achieve a certain state of things. Will determines the potential and voluntary nature of deontics. These seman­tic characteristics are to be taken into account for a systemic description of the concept of Will. Volitional orientation in the semantics of deontic modality creates the basis for its classification either as a volitional or voluntary modal­ity. These approaches demonstrate lack of clarity in the differentiation between communicative, intentional and pragmatic (functional) aspects in the analysis of deontic modality. Voluntary modality is the attitude of the performer to the realization of a certain action; modality of Will is the basic invariant of imper­ative/impulse meaning, which is, in effect, setting a goal. The author considers deontic modality as a means of expressing tmeaning incorporating a volitional component. It is characterized by certain factors and attributes causing the need for a reported action.

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Algorithm for creating conceptual metaphors

Abstract

In modern science, metaphor is associated with human thinking. It is an important research issue in psycholinguistics and cognitive science. The anal­ysis of the formation of a conceptual metaphor is relevant since it is a phenom­enon associated with cognitive and conceptual processes; it reflects the inter­dependence of the individual's thinking and the peculiarities of the language representation of certain concepts. Understanding the process of information transfer through conceptual metaphors is becoming one of the most important components of communication. The objective of this study is to describe the mental processes of the formation of conceptual metaphors based on a certain algorithm. The author analyses different approaches to the study of conceptual metaphor and offers a description of the role of the language corpus, categori­zation and conceptualization processes in the study of conceptual metaphors. The author employs the following methods and techniques: conceptual model­ing, componential analysis, quantitative analysis, and proposes an algorithm of conceptual metaphors formation based on the identification of metaphors of the Praglejaz Group. The author attempts to describe the formation of the fol­lowing conceptual metaphors: ECONOMY IS A LIVING BEING and ECONOMY IS A MECHANISM. The initial research shows that the pro­posed algorithm needs further improvement since it does not cover all mental operations.

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Linguistic criteria for the differentiation between signs and superstitions

Abstract

Signs and superstitions currently make a promising object of research in cognitive linguistics. However, they are often confused with constructs of a different nature— usually with folk magic prophecies. The article presents a set of criteria that clearly distinguish between the two. The most important criterion is the focus on action (or rejection thereof) in magical prophecies and the principled external eventfulness in signs. A sharp delineation between the two objects opens up the possibility for their further interdisciplinary re­search.

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Modern tendencies in media communication

Abstract

The authors analyse the process of word formation in Russian media as a reflection of the global trends in modern communication. A structural and semantic analysis of word formation is done to identify the most productive models. The authors employ pragmatic analysis to determine the role of neolo­gisms in media texts. The following phenomena are characteristic of the mod­ern media discourse: the presence of foreign language elements (derivational models and affixoids) as a manifestation of functional dynamism and the asso­ciated stylistic contrast between the stem and the formant. Stylistically heter­ogeneous neologisms with foreign affixoids reflect the tendency of internation­alization of communication. Neologisms built on the basis of precedent phe­nomena and contaminated neologisms of the non-conventional type are a manifestation of the so-called game component of communication. Some neol­ogisms are created as a result of a deviation from the traditional derivational models. There are also polycode neologisms. Generally speaking, neologisms are used as a means of increasing the expressiveness of media texts and a means of expressing assessment.

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Linguistic and pragmatic potential of metaphors in political discourse

Abstract

The linguistic and pragmatic analysis of expressive means in political texts is gaining popularityamong researchers. The study of the role of meta­phor in enhancing the pragmatic effectiveness of political speech is relevant due to the fact that metaphor, being not only a way of expressing thought, but also being a thought itself, creates the necessary conditions for influencing the addressee's perception. This research is aimed at establishing linguistic and pragmatic means of achieving the planned pragmatic effect and exerting emo­tional pressure on the audience. Metaphor is an important tool for determin­ing the role of language means in enhancing the pragmatic potential of a polit­ical text. The main aim of the study is to explore the pragmatic potential of meta­phor by means of a systematic analysis of different types of metaphors typical of political discourse. Metaphors in political discourse are an effective tool of influencing the addressee's intellectual, volitional, and emotional state. Our research has shown that a wide range of metaphors is used for achieving a powerful information and emotional effect of political texts contributing to the pragmatic potential and a strong effect of a political speech.

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Culture-specific words in the poem «Dead Souls» by N. V. Gogol: the problem of translation

Abstract

Using the poem “Dead souls” by N. V. Gogol and its two English trans­lations made by D. J. Hogarth and R. A. Maguire, the author considers lexical units having a cultural component and belonging to the following semantic fields — Clothes, Transport and Food. The lexical units selected are examined from the point of view of their translation into English in the target texts. By means of a comparative analysis of the source and the target texts, the author establishes a set of criteria for the identification of the most adequate and se­mantically motivated English equivalents to the original lexemes.

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Literary studies

Victories and defeats of General Barclay de Tolly in the novel by L. Tolstoy «War and Peace»

Abstract

The article analyses various means of creating the image of Barclay de Tolly, a great Russian commander who played, according to historians, a deci­sive role in defeating Napoleon in the Patriotic War of 1812. The author con­cludes that his portraying in the novel was very powerful not only due to the re-creation of the dominating attitude towards the general of that time but al­so to Tolstoy’s philosophy of history. According to Tolstoy, the course of events is caused by the interaction of two wills — divine and human.

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The concept of Joy in C. S. Lewis's autobiography

Abstract

The author's individual perception of the concept of Joy is identified in C. S. Lewis's spiritual autobiography «Surprised by Joy». The correlation be­tween the author's individual and cultural-linguistic perception of the con­cept of Joy is analysed. The research shows that Evangelic meaning of the con­cept is actualized whereas a secular linguistic meaning of the concept of Joy as «pleasure, worldly happiness» is de-actualized in Lewis's text.

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Visualization of the esthetics of memories in the novels of W. G. Sebald «The Rings of Saturn» and «Austerlitz»

Abstract

The article explores the meaning and functions of photography in W. G. Se­bald's works exemplified by his novels “The Rings of Saturn” and “Auster­litz”. The relevance of the study of the intermediary component, the photo­graphic one, in the novels of the German writer is confirmed by the abundance of works on this problem written by Western literary critics. Early novels of W. G. Sebald have been studied in more detail. Photography performs an illus­trative function in them. In “The Ring of Saturn” and “Austerlitz” the sig­nificance of visual inserts for the formation of the narrative is determined by their absolute integration with the text. I hold that photography in W. G. Se­bald’s works is the embodiment of a collective memory of the past. It encour­ages the creation of personal history and evokes individual memories. It com­plements the narrative and reveals parallels between different fragments of the narrative, which are not linked textually.

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Pedagogy and psychology

Inclusive education: barriers for implementation and psychological and pedagogical conditions for successful realization

Abstract

The article draws attention to the problem of inclusive education of disa­bled students. The analysis of statistical data, as well as research in the field of inclusive education in different regions of Russia (Moscow, Kaluga, Kostro­ma, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Samara regions and the Caucasus) show that there are barriers to the implementation of inclusive education in Russia. These bar­riers are: negative attitudes towards the introduction of inclusion, low level of public awareness, social stereotypes; lack of and limited research in this area. On the basis of the identified barriers of inclusive education, an attempt has been made to determine the psychological and pedagogical conditions for the successful implementation of inclusive education.

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Application of the mathematical modelling and simulation methods to the study of didactic systems

Abstract

Didactic systems relate to poorly structured and poorly formalizable ob­jects that function under conditions of uncertainty and lack of information about the state of the student, the teaching methods used, etc. The article con­siders the application of mathematical and computer modeling methods for the study of didactic systems and various approaches to the construction of math­ematical and computer models of the student. The following models are dis­cussed: linear and nonlinear learning models; multicomponent model; models of assimilation and forgetting logically related and unrelated information; models that take into account the dependence of the degree of understanding on the speed of receipt of educational information. The resulting graphs of changes in the amount of the student’s knowledge over time are analyzed.

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