IKBFU's Vestnik

The humanities and social science

History

Between nation and gender: History of beards in Western Europe and Russia, 1830—1880

Abstract

This article focuses on the increasing popularity of beards in Western Europe and Russia in the 1830s—1880s. The main hypotheses explaining this phenomenon in Western Europe are analysed and the Western and Russian practices compared. It is concluded that, from the mid-19th century, the beard was a symbol of national unity – the unity of peasants and the educated class in Russia, whereas it emphasised gender inequality and the exceptional status of men in the society and politics in Western Europe.

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Politics of Memory in the South-Eastern Baltic

The renaming campaign in Warmia and Masuria after World War II

Abstract

Using documents, the press, and studies of Polish scholars, this article analyses the problem of changing German toponyms during the remaining campaign in Warmia and Masuria in the early postwar years. The historical background, conditions, and principles of renaming settlements, natural objects, streets, and squares are identified and the practical problems of the renaming campaign are analysed. It is concluded that these processes were quite dissimilar in Poland and the USSR, which is explained by different historical pasts and different approaches to solving the problem of ‘appropriating’ the space of former East Prussia by the authorities and communities of the Masurian district of the Olsztyn voivodeship in Poland and the Kaliningrad region in the RSFSR.

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Law

Corporate criminal liability: case study

Abstract

This paper focuses on the problems of criminal liability of juridical persons and establishing their guilt. The authors analyses relevant practices in different states with established institutions of corporate criminal liability. Perspectives of international researchers are considered and the prospects for the development of this institution in the Russian Federation examined.

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Sources of discretionary powers of judges in Russian law

Abstract

This article examines the sources of judicial discretion under Russian law. Based on a legislation analysis, the author identifies and classifies legal rules granting judges discretionary powers and defines the role of such rules in the administration of law by judges. The discretionary power of judges is considered in terms of compliance with the constitutional rights of citizens.

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Situational approach in the prosecution in intended bodily harm cases

Abstract

This article discusses the role of forensic situation studies in examining court situations. The author's classification of typical situations arising during the trial of cases of willful grievous bodily harm is presented. The specific elements of the state charge by the prosecutor in the trial court are analyzed.

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Economics

Сompetitive environment, business activity, and consumer sentiment: the regional aspect

Abstract

The methodological issues of assessing regional competition, business activity, and consumer confidence are considered as part of a study of regional competitive environment. The results of an analysis of national and international practices in assessing parameters describing competition, competitive environment, business activity, and consumer sentiment are presented in the article. An approach to monitoring business activity and consumer confidence in the Kaliningrad region is proposed.

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A scenario approach to the strategic development of the fishing industry in the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

This article examines scientific approaches to scenario planning and analyses the algorithm of business development scenarios. The authors summarise a vast array of information. An analysis of external and internal environment of the fishing industry is carried out and the problems of regional industry development are identified and systematised. Based on a strategic analysis of the regional fishing industry, different development scenarios are formulated and possible strategic decisions considered.

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The modelling of investment and current costs in investment project evaluation using spreadsheet tables

Abstract

This article focuses on the calculation of investment and current costs of an investment project. The structure of calculations and approaches to their classification are described. Recommendations on organizing calculations of investment and current costs of investment project calculations in spreadsheet tables are produced. It is proposed to consider such parameters as the investment payment period, variable cost per unit, starting date of fixed costs, taxation, price growth, etc. The author describes the logic behind the formulas taking into account these parameters. Spreadsheet formulas are proposed.

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The competitiveness of the Irkutsk region in the world tourism market

Abstract

Today, the world tourism market is dynamic and rapidly developing area of the world economy. International inbound tourism has a positive impact on the national and regional economies of recipient countries thus it is necessary to develop this sector in the countries and regions that have a potential to attract foreign tourists. The purpose of this article is to estimate the competitiveness of the Irkutsk region on the world tourism market based on an analysis of various factors. In particular, the authors examine the impact of natural, geographical, and climatic factors and the region’s cultural and historical potential. Another focus is the present status of tourism infrastructure and availability of human resources in the tourism industry. Special attention is paid to the influence of present economic and political conditions on the development of international tourism. It is concluded that there is a need for a further study of the influence of regional features on international tourism development.

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The mandatory classification of hotels and other types of accommodation as a business process: the case of the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

This article deals with the mechanism of mandatory classification of hotels and other accommodation units on the territory of the Kaliningrad region. This requirement is considered as a business process. The article provides a detailed analysis of the input and output of the business process and its six main stages. The authors address the key problems faced by Kaliningrad hoteliers when undergoing the classification procedures. The causes of typical problems and the ways to solve them are examined.

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