IKBFU's Vestnik

2015 Issue №6

Conceptual characteristics of procedural units of thinking

Abstract

This article develops a theory of the structure of operational and functional components of the thinking process: the problems of analysing procedural units of thinking are formulated; the content of the “method of thinking” and “technique of thinking” concepts are given a precise definition. The author analyses the content and relational characteristics of procedural units of different types.

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The place and role of ontology in the system model of argumentation

Abstract

This article identifies the role of ontology in the system model of argumentation (SMA). Since the term ‘ontology’ is rarely used in argumentation studies and the context of its usage is rather unconventional, there is a need to define the notion of ontology within SMA. The method for studying argumentation in SMA is that of modelling, the second important step is analysing the role of ontology in argumentation modelling.

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The liberal concept of freedom in the conservative teachings of K. N. Leontyev and L. A. Tikhomirov

Abstract

This article considers the reception of the liberal concept of freedom in Russian conservatism as exemplified by K. N. Leontyev and L. A. Tikhomirov. Reasoning in the framework of Russian philosophical organicism, each philosopher insists on his own approach to analysing social phenomena. It is shown that Leontyev, in line with naturalistic aestheticism, sharply criticises the philistine ideal triumphing through the implementation of the liberal interpretation of freedom. Tikhomirov, under the influence of political philosophical realism, focuses on analysing the theory and practice of the liberal democratic mechanism. The author pays special attention to the personalist/impersonalist elements in Leontyev’s and Tikhomirov’s argumentation. The correlation between monarchical and revolutionary-conservative principles in the thinkers’ interpretation of liberal “freedom” is revealed

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Betwee the thing and the human being: the ethical and anthropological problems in V. Nabokov’s novel Despair

Abstract

The article considers the ethical and anthropological component of double discourse in V. Nabokov’s novel Despair. The author considers the problem of comparison between a person and a thing addressed by Nabokov. Parallels to the doppelganger discussion and ethical criticism in Russian philosophy and literature abroad are drawn.

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From Kant's “kingdom of ends” to an economic model

Abstract

The article considers the connection between ethics, in particular Kant’s practical philosophy, and economics. The author examines historical reasons for Kant’s ethic not to have become part of the economic discourse and interprets modern business processes from Kant’s perspective. The article aims to demonstrate the possibilities of applying the philosophical instruments of Kant’s morals to concrete economic issues.

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Wittgenstein’s followers vs Habermas: A solution to I. Berlin’s dilemma

Abstract

This article analyses Berlin’s negative and positive interpretations of freedom and idea of value pluralism. It is concluded that pluralism of values and liberals’ negative freedom results in the problem of relativism and ‘Hobbes/Berlin dilemma’ — the dilemma between individual and collective reasons. The concepts of freedom of L. Wittgenstein’s (Hurly, Pettit) and J. Habermas are considered through the prism of these concepts.

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Megatrends in the socionatural development of the world and the transofmration of biosphere life

Abstract

In the context of social and philosophical reflection and based on interdisciplinary studies, the article considers megatrends of social development since the development of a producing economy in the world. Following the ideas of V. I. Vernadsky on socionatural development of the world, the author analyses the key megatrends unveiling the contradictory nature of social progress. The development of social life leads to the demise of natural one. The author sug¬gests ways of preserving and developing the biosphere life.

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Morality and philosophical education

Abstract

This article considers the possibility of philosophical education influencing moral consciousness in the conditions of contemporary societies. The author stresses the relevance of rational approach to moral issues from the perspective of contemporary philosophy and science. The institution of philosophical education is considered as a means to create a foundation for critical and reflective moral consciousness.

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The problem of sociological reductionism in gender studies

Abstract

Social constructivism is a philosophical and methodological approach widely used in the gender studies of the second half of the 20th century. The author examines the theoretical framework for sociological constructivism and ideological reasons behind its popularity in feminist philosophy. The author considers social constructivism as a form of sociological reductionism in explaining human behaviour.

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