Modern landscapes of the Kaliningrad region as a reflection of land usAbstract
This article examines the current areal territorial habitats and their de-pendence on the land use system. The author presents cases of transformations and restoration successions of agricultural and forestry landscapes. The mosaic nature of the current genetically determined landscape structure of the Kaliningrad region is explained by a large number of areas at different stages of transformation
A geoecological analysis of the impact of meteorological factors on the forests of the Kaliningrad regionAbstract
This articles estimates the impact of changes in meteorological factors changes on the in dynamics of forest phytomass and oxygen evolution in the forests of the Kaliningrad region in 1960—2010. The authors make conclusions regarding the environment shaping significance of forests based on calculation data.
Climate variability in the dynamics of seasonal development of plants in the South-East BalticAbstract
This article follows the dynamics of the hydrothermal climate indicators in the Kaliningrad region over a 30-year period. The authors examine the variability of plants indicating phonological events in the regions. Changes in the blossom period of such plants in spring 2012 are compared to the data of 1893 (based on Der Frühlingseinzug report by the Prussian botanical society, 1893). Finally, conclusions are made regarding the impact of climate change on the seasonal development of plants.
Pollination as an ecosystem service in agricultural nature managementAbstract
This article discusses the role of pollination by honeybees as an ecosystem service in the structure of agricultural production. Forest, marsh, and mea-dow communities are considered as basic conditions for pollination in the eco-systems of the Kaliningrad region. A classification of the area for beekeeping is conducted according to the productive capacity of plant communities. The 1991—2004 interannual dynamics of providing ecosystem services by the agricultural geosystem was analysed in the case of a model area. The author em-phasizes the impact of climate change on the ecosystem service.
Nature conservation areas and objects
Development of the Zehlau ecosystem (based on the data on peat deposit structure)Abstract
This article presents new detailed data on the botanical composition of peat and the structure of peat deposits of the Zehlau raised bog. The authors investigate the history of the ecosystem and provide evidence for the idea that the bog developed through the paludification of a forest area, vast reed vegeta-tion, and rapid succession of different Sphagna communities. The article also focuses on the impact of fires and human activities on the development of the Zehlau ecosystem, as well as the need to preserve it.
Ecology and biology of the Phleum phleoides L. Karst. in the South-East BalticAbstract
This article presents the results of a study of the ecology and biology of Phleum phleoides in the South-East Baltic. The authors analyse the popula¬tion dynamics in 2013—2014.
The evolution of functioning zoning of the Curonian Spit national parkAbstract
This paper presents a retrospective analysis of functional zoning as a tool of environmental management in the Curonian Spit national park (Kalinin-grad region) from its establishment to the present day. The author considers gradual changes in the composition of functional areas and the proportion of zones with different protection regimes.
The lichen flora of the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University’s Botanical GardenAbstract
This article presents an inventory of lichen flora of the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University’s Botanical Garden. 21 lichen species of lichens were identified. Taxonomic, ecological (by main substrate types), and biomorphological analyses of the lichens found in the Botanical Garden were conducted
The density of the even-toed ungulates in the Curonian Spit national park (based on the population monitoring data)Abstract
This article estimates the density of eventoed ungulates in the Curonian Spit national park and their distribution in the studied area. The density was calculated through the method of pellet count. The census of the mammal pop-ulation through the method of drive count was conducted alongside the daily monitoring of population.
Biogeochemistry, bioinformatics, and medicine
The biogeochemical activity of exotic gymnosperm species in industrial urbanised ecosystemsAbstract
This paper presents data on the biogeochemical activity of 9 exotic gym-nosperm species in a model urban ecosystem with a high level of anthropo-genic pollution (Russia’s Non-Black Earth zone). The author examines data on the biogeochemical activity of Thuja occidentalis, Juníperus sabína, and Picea pungens in the conditions of polymetallic contamination of air and soils in the area affected by iron and steel plants. It is shown that most Gym-nospermae species accumulate such macroelements as K, Ca, and Cl. Thuja occidentalis accumulates V, Cr, Fe, Ni, and As in the area affected by iron and steel plants and is sensitive to emissions. The Ni concentration in the or-gans of Thuja is reduced in the conditions of polymetallic pollution. Picea pungens can accumulate iron in the area affected by iron and steel plants; its shoots can also accumulate Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn when affected by transport emis-sions. Juníperus sabína, Thuja occidentalis, and Taxus baccata accumu-late significant amounts of V, Cr, Fe, Ni and As in vegetative organs.
The features of heavy metal accumulation in forest mushrooms in the Kaliningrad regionAbstract
This articles examines the ability of wild mushrooms to accumulate heavy metals. The concentration of Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb in the fruit-ing bodies of forest mushrooms was determined using AAS techniques. It is established that certain mushroom species accumulate cadmium and silver, whereas the most pronounced ability is found in Boletus edulis. The correla-tion between the concentration of metals in the upper soil layer and fruiting bodies is questionable, however, areas in the vicinity of emission sources are characterized by a tendency of heavy metal accumulation
Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive analysis in studying the urolith compositionAbstract
This article presents the results of a study of the chemical composition of uroliths using energy dispersing analysis. It is shown that this methodology makes it possible to analyse the elemental composition of uroliths
Daphnia magna Straus (1826) (Cladocera, Crustacea) as a test object for assessing endocrine disorders in aquatic organismsAbstract
This article examines the effect of prednisolone – an analogue of the ver-tebrate hormone hydrocortisone – on the activity of somatic growth, blood sys-tem function, fecundity, and reproductive rate in Daphnia Straus (1826) (Cladocera, Crustacea) in three consecutive generations. This hormone had a proven effect on the studied morpho-functional characteristics of Daphnia. It indicates that the test object is sensitive to exogenous hormones, therefore, Daphina can be used in assessing endocrine disorders in aquatic organisms.
A new type of ecosensor for an express analysis of liquid objectsAbstract
This article presents a completely new type of ecosensors manufactured from chalcogenide glass and designed to analyse liquid objects based on the in-terpretation of ion-resistive effect as an oxidant-resistive one. The oxidant-resistive effect and its first successful applications in chemical analysis helped to develop a new area of electrochemical analysis methods — resistometry.
Spatial and industrial development
The modern concept of coast protection and hydraulic engineering on the sea coasts of the Kaliningrad regionAbstract
This article analyses the current state of the Baltic Sea coast protection system in the Kaliningrad region. It is stressed that the critical condition of hydraulic structures hampers effective protection of the seacoast. The modern concept of sea protection suggests that coast protection structures must con-trol the movement of deposits in the coastal zone to preserve and restore the beach strip as a basic element of coast protection.
Profitability and return on investment in urban areasAbstract
This article examines the correlation between investment and a high cost of land in the region. The author presents an approach to calculating returns on investment based on a corresponding model. Special attention is paid to analysing the nature of investment in certain parcels of land. The article esti-mates the role of investment tools in solving the problem of sporadic develop-ment of urban spaces. The proposed model makes it possible to conduct a pre-dictive spatial analysis of investment activity to identify the priorities of urban development at the level of individual parcels of land.
Finance lease in attracting investment resources to the fishing industry of the Kaliningrad regionAbstract
This article suggests developing a two-tier cooperating system character-ised by scientific novelty. This system brings together lessors and lessee and makes it possible to systemise the process of fulfilling ship delivery orders, en-sure legal protection of lessees, and improve control over prompt payment.
This system can also be used in concluding finance lease agreements in order to attract financial resources to building a fishing fleet
Market forms of industrial production organisation as “growth poles” of the economyAbstract
This article describes the structural transformations in the Russian man-ufacturing industry caused by the changing geopolitical and economic posi-tion of Russia in the world economy in the late 20th/early 21st century. The author presents an economic and geographical analysis of the development of new forms of national industrial production.
It is stressed that the development of new forms of industrial production organisation has become especially relevant in the last decade, since the coun-try’s effective development requires a search for new progressive forms and methods of functioning of inter-branch associations, which are necessary for the development of a multi-sectoral economic complex