IKBFU's Vestnik

The humanities and social science

Basic problems of the development of state and law

Legal consciousness in the context of culture

Abstract

This article examines legal conscience in view of its little-studied generating function. The author considers the ideas affecting legal consciousness in different types of cultures – humanocentric and sociocentric ones. The idea of power underlies legal consciousness in sociocentric cultures, and the idea of freedom that of person-oriented cultures. The deformations of legal consciousness characteristic of modern Russia are explained by an incomplete transition from socio- to himanocentrism.

Download an article

Studies of the Orthodox canon law in the Baltic area in the second half of the 19th/early 20th centuries

Abstract

This article analyses the emergence of canon law as a science and academic discipline in the Baltic area in the second half of 19th/early 20th centuries. The author emphasizes the role of the Tartu University in the organizational development of ecclesiastical law in legal education system of the Russian Empire. The article describes the general religious situation in the Baltic area and explores the role of the personality of a scientist in the development of a research area.

Download an article

Socio-psychological aspects of corruption

Abstract

This article analyses the socio-psychological determinants of corruption and the features of this phenomenon in the 19th century and today. It is concluded that, in the current condition, a more sever criminal penalty can have a greater effect than continuing and costly efforts to reduce poverty and wealth inequality in population. Of significance is the application of the principles of legality and inevitability of punishment for corruption-related crimes.

Download an article

Problems of interpreting legal norms in the court of justice

Abstract

This article discusses the interpretation of legal norms by courts, which consist primarily in understanding the law. The interpretation of the law is often conducted alongside the interpretation of the statute, which requires serious professional and academic training, especially, if it involves the use of constitutional norms, analogy of law, and the principles of law. The authors stress that the courts of the Russian Federation do not create sources of law, but merely interpret them in the framework of their powers with the exception of the Constitutional Court, which has consistently emphasized over the years that the legal positions contained in its decisions are not only normative, but also have legal force equal to that of the Constitution.

Download an article

Improvement of legal regulation of social relations

Problems of increasing the efficiency of the special economic zone legal regime in the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

This article considers the main problems of improving the legal regime of the Special Economic Zone through the prism of efficiency increase. The author stresses the imperfection of some provisions contained in the Law on the Special economic Zone. Certain proposals on the legal regulation and law enforcement are formulated.

Download an article

Problems of introducing various forms of social entrepreneurship in the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

This article addresses the interpretation of social entrepreneurship in the Russian legislation, as well as the introduction of various forms of social entrepreneurship in the Kaliningrad region. The author analyses the cases of social entrepreneurship development in the Kaliningrad region and identifies the problems of interpreting the term “social entrepreneurship” in the Russian commercial law.

Download an article

Problems of law enforcement in legal responsibility of public authorities

Abstract

This article discusses certain features of the enforcement mechanism in the legal regulation of public authorities’ responsibility. The author conducts a critical analysis of the possibilities of using laws as enforcement acts of the legal responsibility of public authorities. The shortcomings of certain legal constructions associated with public enforcement measures against public authorities are identified. The article addresses the issues for improving the related legislation of the Russian Federation.

Download an article

International legal protection of marine environment from vessel-source pollution

Abstract

This article analyses the basic norms of international law on the protection of marine environment from vessel-source pollution. The universal and regional levels of legal regulation of preventing marine environment pollution are identified. Special attention is paid to the status of the Baltic Sea as a “special area” and as a “particularly sensitive sea area”.

Download an article

Topical problems of investigative and court processes

Problems of qualifying tax-related crimes based on the characteristics of the perpetrator

Abstract

This article explores issues relating to qualifying actions of performed by an authorized representative in collusion with the taxpayer or by those conducting entrepreneurial activities through a figurehead. It is stressed that the Plenary Session of the Supreme Court should clarify these issues through introducing amendments to the existing Resolution No. 64 of December 28, 2006 "On the practice of court application of criminal legislation concerning liability for tax crimes".

Download an article

Young scientists’ forum

The concept and features of discretionary powers of judges

Abstract

This article addresses the problem of discretionary powers of judges and considers the correlation between the notions of judicial discretions and discretionary powers. Based on an analysis of scientific literature, the author identifies the features of discretion powers of judges, as well as the possibilities for their efficient application in the administration of justice.

Download an article

The admissibility of techniques used in the examination of witnesses

Abstract

This article discusses the application of tactics in the examination of witness. The author addresses the admissibility of tactics depending on the type of witness and investigatory situation. Special attention is paid to the admissibility of using methods of emotional and psychological pressure.

Download an article

Topical issues of economic studies

The logistics of reverse flows of secondary resources

Abstract

This article discusses the problem of organizing the movement of secondary resource flows in the system of reverse logistics flows. Traditionally, Consumption is considered the point of origin for all types of reverse flows, however, the question remains unanswered as to whether the secondary resource flows should be distinguished within them. This problem requires solution for the proper organisation of recycling processes.

Download an article

Using the economics dynamics principles in modelling the process of original accumulation of household waste

Abstract

This article justifies the use of economic dynamics principles in the process of modelling the existing system of household waste accumulation. The authors identify a number of factors relating to the tendency of various organisational manifestations to stable equilibrium of the process of accumulating household waste in containers. The model is based on the linear proportion of changes in parameters describing the quantity of household waste accumulated within one cycle.

Download an article

Key factors of the spatial organisation of small businesses

Abstract

This article describes the conditions, resources, and prerequisites necessary for the efficient functioning of small businesses. Based on the theoretical propositions and practical results of productive forces distribution, the authors identify groups of factors of spatial organization of small businesses: national and supranational level, regional level, location, and the entrepreneur. A sequential analysis of the main factors of the small business deployment showed that taking into account all the factors contributes to the efficient functioning of small firms and better spatial organization of the national and regional economies. The authors define the concept of “location” necessary of the organization of a small enterprise and emphasize the psychological aspect of the object under consideration, namely, the moral and ethical constraints and moral values of entrepreneurs.

Download an article

Jubilees