Ecology, zoology, botany
The history and modern condition of the urban fieldfare (Turdus pilaris L.) population in KaliningradAbstract
This article examines the history of formation of fieldfare population in Kaliningrad and describes its current condition. The fieldfare population density during the 2010—2013 nesting period was 0—1.5 breeding pairs/10 hecares in urban forests, 1.1—3.7 b. p./10 ha in city parks, and; 0—1 b. p./10 ha in city streets. The dynamics of nesting density in peripheral abandoned parks is characterized by a clear negative trend, whereas, in cultivated city parks, nesting density has significantly increased since the beginning of the 21st century. Despite the significant expansion of city habitat and population growth in the first decade of the 21st century, the fieldfare population in Kaliningrad remains small and slightly exceeds 170 pairs across the city territory. Some factors affecting the formation of urban populations are discussed.
An environmental analysis of the red-backed shrike’s and barred warbler’s nutrition in the conditions of sympatric habitation in natural and anthropogenic stationsAbstract
We studied the features of altricial trophism in the barred warbler and red-backed shrike in 2004—2013. The collection of data on the nutrition of altricial chicks was carried out in the Ryazan region both in natural (Spas-Klepiki district) and in manmade (Ryazan outskirts) habitats. A comparative analysis of the data showed that both species are characterized by considerable dietary plasticity. In each station, the species composition of prey and the mass concentration of trophic groups differed substantially. The taxonomic composition of the birds’ diet is largely determined by the structure of the insect fauna of foraging microstations, thus, the identified plasticity of both species’ nutrition makes it possible for the birds to adjust to the local conditions, which, in its turn, optimises foraging and contributes to a decrease in competitive pressure in each community. The main dietary differences between these species lie in the foraging tactics: ambushing in the red-backed shrike and searching in the shrub layer and tall grass in the barred warbler. The preference of barred warbler and red-backed shrike for large food items is a significant limiting factor for their synanthropization, since, in human settlements and their outskirts, such invertebrates are more vulanerable to human activities.
The subspecies affiliation of some breeding bird species in the Kaliningrad region. P. 2.1: Passerines — PasseriformesAbstract
This article (part 2/1) presents data on the taxonomy of birds of the Kaliningrad region in comparison with the taxonomic reviews of birds in Belarus, the Baltic States, Poland, and other European territories. It is the second part of the work that discusses the issue of subspecies affiliation of some breeding species of the order Passeriformes. Based on the study of extensive data collections and an analysis of publications, the author provides an overview of subspecies affiliation of 23 nesting bird species.
The environmental aspects of the great cormorant’s (Phalacrocorax carbo L.) nest location on the coast of the Curonian Lagoon of the Baltic SeaAbstract
This article explores the features of the cormorant’s nest locations on alder at two breeding colonies on the coast of the Curonian Lagoon. Based on an analysis of over 10,000 nests, three types of nest locations were identified:forks of tree trunks and large branches, medium-sized crown branches, and tops of broken trunks. It is shown that, in older and more numerous colonies, nests are located much lower, whereas the variability in nest distribution reaches it maximum. In the newly formed small colonies, almost all nests are located in the axial part of the crown — the fork of the trunk and larger branches. New colonies have a low proportion of nests located in medium-sized branches of the crown farther from the trunk and no nests on the top of broken trunks. It is proven that, as a colony grows, conditions and opportunities for the use of different parts of a tree as a substrate for nest building change, which forces birds to expand the range of possible nest locations
Foraging strategies in the pine marten Martes martes: A modelAbstract
A study based on tracking techniques showed that the foraging strategies of pine martens constitute stereotypes combining optimal foraging productivity with reducing the number of risk situations. In this species, foraging takes place in forest-grassland ecotones, which ensures a combination of foraging efficiency and risk-aversion.
A comparison of the condition of the sand hopper Talitrus saltator Montagu, 1808 groups depending on the ecology of the Vistula and Curonian Spits’ coastAbstract
A study into the condition of Talitrus saltator Montagu, 1808 groups on the coast of the Vistula and the Curonian Spits in April — October 2011 showed significant differences in the seasonal dynamics of key parameters characterizing these groups. On the Curonian Spit, an increase in the average and total abundance and biomass of Talitridae is ensures through a normal life cycle. On the Vistula Spit, the preservation of a relatively stable average and total abundance and biomass is explained by an increase in the number of juveniles that replace older age groups in July — August, which can be interpreted as a response to intensified anthropogenic stress.
Long-term distribution of the crustacean Calanoida (Copepoda) in the dumping area in the South East BalticAbstract
This work analyses the long-term distribution of crustaceans Calanoida in the dredged sediment dumping area in the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea. A hydrobiological study was carried out in spring and summer of 1998—2009 in the framework of national monitoring. The species composition of the Calanoida group was identified as well as the variations in their abundance and biomass. A seasonal (spring – summer) increase in the abundance and biomass of zooplankton and Calanoida was observed. The seasonal increase took place against the background of a steady decrease in the abundance abundance and biomass of crustacean throughout the period (1998—2009).
An assessment of the ecological condition of Lake Vištytis using various hydrobiological indicesAbstract
This paper presents the results of an assessment of the ecological state of Lake Vištytis using the most widely applied hydrobiological indices based on structural indicators of benthos. They include the Shannon index of species diversity, Pantle-Buck saprobity index, Balushkina chironomid index, Goodnight — Whitley oligochaeta index, Balushkina integral index, and Bakanov combined index. Spatial distribution maps were drawn for each indicator.
The species structure of bottom-dwelling fish communities of the South East Baltic according to the trawl survey dataAbstract
An analysis of the species structure of the demersal fish communities of the South East Baltic was carried out based on of annual international bottom trawl surveys. The species composition of bycatch was identified and its contribution to the biodiversity of the water area assessed. The catchy structure was analyzed based on the species percentage in the landing and the frequency of occurrence. The results of this investigation can be used in developing an ecosystem approach for the fishing industry.
The adaptive potential and ecology of woody plants of the Irano-Turanian introduction centre in the conditions of the South Baltic (Kaliningrad region)Abstract
This article examines the history of the introduction of wood plants from the Irano-Turanian introduction center in the Kaliningrad region. A typological analysis of the introduced species is carried out. The biomorphological and ecotypical structure, as well as the seasonal changes characteristic of these plants, are identified. The authors analyze the acclimatization and perspectives of further introduction of species from the Irano-Turanian center in the Kaliningrad region.
Environmentally safe growth stimulator for pre-sowing seed treatmentAbstract
This article examines the influence of a pre-sowing seed treatment with a hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate solution on the germination, seedling growth, and average weight of the fruit of Lycopersicum esculenum. An increase in seed germination, the average weight of fruit, and resistance to adverse weather conditions and diseases and more active growth of seedlings has been observed. Hydrogen peroxide solution has a more pronounced effect on the height of seedlings than the "Appin-extra" traditional commercial preparation. Pre-sowing seed treatment with hydrogen peroxide is sufficiently effective in accelerating the growth of seedlings and reducing disease incidence. The application of potassium permanganate is less effective than presowing seed treatment with hydrogen peroxide. The effect of increased seed germination is more pronounced in the case of combined pre-sowing seed treatment with a hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate solution.
New discoveries of Aspicilia lichen in the UralsAbstract
New records of six Aspicilia s. l. species (Megasporaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes): Aspicilia aquatica (Fr.) Körb., Aspicilia dudinensis (H. Magn.) Oxner, Aspicilia intermutans (Nyl.) Arnold, Aspicilia verrucigera Hue, Sagedia zonata Ach. and Circinaria esculenta (Pall.) Sohrabi in the Urals are presented. The diagnostic features and ecological characteristics of the species are discussed.
An environmental analysis of the activity of bioflavonoid accumulation in medicinal plantsAbstract
This article presents experimental data on the rutin, catechin, and leucoanthocyanin content in medicinal plants (66 species from 31 families). A significant correlation between the catechine and leucoanthocyanin content in plant tissues (r = 0.89) is observed. The study identified promising plant species with a high content of bioflavonoids. These plants can be used as a basis for developing innovative functional foods that exhibit high antioxidant activity.
Gender and seasonal characteristics of lipid exchange in people of different agesAbstract
A biochemical assay of blood lipids in military personnel and reservists was conducted. The influence of seasonal changes (spring, autumn) on the lipid compounds of blood serum was analyzed. A dependence between the total cholesterol level, the content of low-density (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL, and triglycerides and age and gender was identified.
The modelling of postmortem heat transfer and estimating the time of deathAbstract
This article analyses different mathematical models of the process of postmortem heat transfer in an adult cadaver based on postmortem temperature dynamics. A model of heat transfer in a newborn cadaver presented as a finite cylinder is examined in detail. An important factor in constructing a mathematical model of postmortem heat transfer in a newborn aimed at identifying the time of death is body form approximation. It is shown that heat transfer in a cadaver is not sufficient for identifying the time of death, which should be based on a comprehensive assessment of postmortem changes.
Characteristics of traumatic fragmentation of the body and personal identifi-cation in cases of mass casualties as a result of manmade emergenciesAbstract
Practical material is used to analyze the frequency of applying different personal identification methods in the cases of traumatic body fragmentation in different manmade emergencies. The authors estimate the identification efficiency of dental characteristics depending on the damaging factor in different manmade emergencies. It is shown that the significance of forensic postmortem dental identification increases with the intensity of damaging factors. The key method of forensic dental identification process is a comparison of an antemortem dental record with the postmortem one, which loses its significance in the absence of data for a comparative analysis. This circumstance requires a search for dental equivalents of different general and specific personal characteristics for identification purposes.
The impact of water dynamics on biomass and the distribution of biological resources of the pelagic zone of the southern parts of the Atlantic and Pacific OceansAbstract
This article examines seasonal and interannual changes in the parameters of mesoscale water dynamics in the upper 200 m layer of the ocean due to the biomass and biological resources distribution, as well as the specific dynamics of the atmospheric processes. The authors identify the scope and mechanisms of the impact of oceanological conditions on the biomass and distribution of commercial horse mackerel concentrations in the southern part of the Pacific Ocean and the Antarctic krill in the Antarctic part of the Atlantic. The possibilities of using the results obtained for the rational commercial use of biological resources in the studied areas of the global ocean are described.
The dynamics of air temperature extrema as an indicator of climate warming in the Central Tuvan basin of the Tyva RepublicAbstract
Climate warming results in an increase of air temperatures extrema. The dynamics of anomalies in air temperature absolute maxima are described through unusual biquadrate polynomials. The minimum peak was observed in 1989—1992, afterwards a steep increase followed. The authors examine the possibility of an increase in the frequency of air temperature anomalies in the form of heat waves. The patterns of dynamics of anomalies in the absolute air temperature minima is accurately formalized through linear equations. The authors identify inconsistencies in the patterns of dynamics of anomalies in the absolute air temperature minima and maxima presented by different weather stations: the rate of increase in absolute minima is more than three times that of maxima.
The Swedish model of spatial planning: Functions, problems, and solutionsAbstract
In this study clarification and definition are provided for the bodies responsible for making administrative decisions for territorial development. The regulatory framework of spatial planning is also embodied. The main instruments of spatial planning are shown as different types of plans: Regional plan, Municipal comprehensive plan, Detailed development plan, Special area regulations and Property regulation plan. Particular attention is paid to the influence on the planning process of the entry of Sweden to the European Union. The problems associated with spatial planning are made evident and solutions are proposed. Swedish experience may be interesting to the urban and regional planners.