Global and regional processes
The characteristics of the energy spectrum of mixture ratio and air temperature in the troposphere of the AntarcticAbstract
This article analyses the characteristics of the energy spectrum of mixture ratio and air temperature in the troposphere of the Antarctic obtained by Fourier analysis. Selected peaks of spectral density of mixing ratio and air temperature monthly averages are interpreted as annual and semi-annual fluctuations. The spectral density of random function is considered as the energy spectrum of functions. It is shown that activity zones are present in the troposphere of the Antarctic.
Climate change in the mountainous regions of the Republic of Tyva: The case of the Bay-Tayginsk districtAbstract
The most considerable increase in the temperature of soil surface was observed in the cold period (1,5 °С, a 53,9% rise in temperature), the smallest in August (0,3 °С, 2,1 %), whereas, in May-June, the increase was negative (–1,3 °С, 27,1 %). Major increases in air temperature take place in April-July, September, and October (68,8 %), summer and winter accounted for 35,0 % and 29,9 % respectively. Soil surface and air temperature increased by 1,7ºС. In the warm period, air temperature is lower than soil surface temperature; in the cold period, on the contrary, it is higher. The air temperature increase is 33% lower than that of soil surface.
An assessment of drought conditions in Ukraine in the end of the 20th the beginning of the 21st centuriesAbstract
The drought conditions in the 1995—2012 vegetation period in Ukraine are estimated using the fields of Selyaninov hydrothermal coefficient (SHC). The analog method helps identify the most probable seasonal and monthly SHC fields. The lowest SHC values are observed in the steppe regions and Crimea. Frequency of drought months reaches 60—70 % in the southern regions. The most severe seasonal droughts occurred in 2007 and 2009 with a spread area of over 35 % of the country’s territory.
Lithodynamics and geomorphology
The lithodynamic and geomorphological features of a terraced underwater slope of the Sambian peninsula (South-East Baltic)Abstract
The submerged (ancient) wave-cut cliffs have been mapped as a result of seabed exploration using the side-scan sonar, echo-sounding and grain-size analysis methods in the area of Cape Taran; they have been classified according to the morphological features; a detailed electronic lithological map has been drawn. The authors analyse the correlation between bottom currents and meteorological conditions. The sediment trend analysis based on statistical parameters of grain size distribution helped identify the sediment trend from the 10 m isobath northward towards the open sea and that along the shore at a 20 m depth eastward.
A study into the passive tracer and Lagrangian particles propagation in the coastal area of South-East BalticAbstract
This paper studies the passive tracer and Lagrange particle propagation in the coastal area of South-East Baltic using hydrodynamic numerical modelling. The inclusion of an additional parameter, which describes the variation of the passive tracer concentration as well as its connection with the Lagrange particle random walk model, into the model made it possible to identify the features of the coastal water dynamics during upwelling. The possibilities of the penetration of suspended particles of different origin from the coastal area into the open sea and vice versa are investigated.
A study into the dynamics of the Baltic Sea coastal zone using satellite imagesAbstract
The changes in the total area of the coastal zone were estimated on four test sites in 1979-2010. The author emphasizes the domination of abrasive processes over accumulative ones. The total area of losses ranges from 4 to 50 ha per year against the background of a 2 – 21 ha annual accumulation.
The status of geomorphologic knowledge of the territory of the Kaliningrad regionAbstract
This article examines the genesis of disputed geomorphologic zones. The authors propose identifying the Sambian end moraine site on the Sambian peninsula. It has been established that the right bank of the River Instruch is not an end moraine ridge, whereas the Neman – Sesupe interfluve is a relict alluvian plain. The genesis of the Polessk lowland and a number of geomorphological borders require further study.
The goecological seismic risk associated with the construction of an underground gas storage in the Kaliningrad regionAbstract
This article justifies the methodology for assessing the geoecological seismic risk associated with the construction of the Kaliningrad Underground Gas Storage (KUGS). A modified Leopold matrix helped obtain semi-quantitative seismic safety estimate for the object under consideration. The risk assessment is taken into account when developing technological solutions at the design stage.
Geochemistry and biogeochemistry
Ferromanganese nodule neoformations in the soils of the western part of the Kaliningrad regionAbstract
This article examines the concretionary neoformations in soils: hardpans, tubular concretions, ironstone. The results of an analysis of the morphologic properties and chemical composition of concretions are presented. Concretions were found in most regional soils. The preliminary diagnostic significance was identified for different groups of neoformations depending on the soil moistening regime. Concretions are proved to accumulate Fe, Mn, Ni, P, As, and sometimes Zn, Cu, Cr, Y. The structure of concretions reflects the features of the geochemical situation.
The accumulation of heavy metals by wild mushrooms in the Kaliningrad regionAbstract
This article considers the heavy metal accumulation capacity of wild mushroomson on the basis of calculating the concentration and biological uptake coefficients. An analysis of these data shows that some mushroom species have a high selective capacity for cadmium (B. edulis) and zinc accumulation (R. decolorans) independent of the concentration of these elements in the substrate. A higher concentration of heavy metals was detected in the Russulaceae picked on the Sambia peninsula in comparison to similar species of the Polessk forest.
On the content of heavy metals in the soils of Kaliningrad urbanised ecosystemsAbstract
This article studies the quantitative content of heavy metals in the soils of Kaliningrad urban ecosystems. It is shown that urban soils are heavily contaminated with zinc and lead with an at least threefold excess of the TLV. The concentration of copper, nickel, and cobalt is closer to the TLV. The authors emphasize that heavy metal concentrations in the soils of Kaliningrad urban ecosystems vary significantly depending on the year and territory.
Regional biological problems
On the discovery of rare and extinct plant species in the Kaliningrad regionAbstract
This article focuses on the history of some rare species in the Kaliningrad region. The authors provide information on new locations of the species’ occurrence in the Kaliningrad region. The article contains a schematic map of new discoveries of rare and extinct species in the Kaliningrad region. A geobotanical analysis of the mentioned biotopes is conducted. The authors present preliminary qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the cenopopulations of these species.
The lichen flora of Zadovskoye raised bog in the Slavsk district of the Kaliningrad regionAbstract
This article provides a historical overview of studies into the lichen flora of raised bogs of the Kaliningrad region. A list of the lichens of the Zadovskoye raised bog (Slavsk district, Kaliningrad region) as well as a taxonomic analysis and data on the ecology of lichens are presented. A schematic map of the occurrence of lichens on Zadovskoe bog is given. The article contains a comparative table of the lichen flora of raised bogs in the Kaliningrad region.
The condition of a group of the sandhopper Talitrus saltator (Montagu, 1808) on the Vistual Spit coastAbstract
This article provides evidence of the critical condition of the Baltic Talitridae occurring in the sand beach areas and affected by heavy motor traffic. Their individual mass has declined significantly and the average and total number increased dramatically.
Life forms of the Cardiidae on the Kaliningrad sea coastAbstract
This article focuses on the similarity and differences between the morphometric characteristics of subfossil shells of bivalve molluscs found in the wrack zone of the Kaliningrad beaches of the Baltic Sea. It is established that the most stable feature of the species level is the number of radial ribs and the most volatile one is the ω coefficient describing the content of calcium in the environment of the Cardiidae.
Theoretical and applied aspects of medicine
The genetic patterns of severe therapeutically resistant asthma as shown by a transcriptomic study: An analysis of gene ontology and KEGG pathwaysAbstract
The leading mechanisms and causes of severe therapy resistant asthma are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to define global patterns of gene expression in adults with severe therapy-resistant asthma. Performed 24-week prospective interventional study in parallel groups. Severe asthma patients was aposterior divided at therapy sensitive and resistant patients according to ATS criteria. Global transcriptome profile was characterized using the Affymetrix HuGene ST1.0 chip.
Age-related changes in the structural and functional properties of skinAbstract
This article focuses on the current state of research on the properties of skin chronoaging. The authors analyse the possibility of practical application of the existing diagnostic methods of assessing age-related skin transformations for establishing the age of living persons in the framework of forensic identification tests. Major trends in the development of the methodology of age estimation from skin and its appendages are described.
Sustainable development and territorial planning
Sustainable development of coastal territories as a basis for integrated management of coastal zonesAbstract
This article provides a detailed definition of the concept of ‘territory capacity’ and its role in the integral management of coastal zones. The term ‘coastal territory’ and its management are considered from the perspective of the Russian and several foreign legislations. Special attention is paid to the concept of sustainable development and the need to apply its key provisions in strategic planning and the integral management of coastal zones.
Recreational zoning of the territory of the Kaliningrad regionAbstract
This article provides a detailed definition of the concepts of ‘tourist area demarcation’ and ‘tourist zoning’. The earlier proposed components of competitiveness index help identify four major groups of factors of recreation zone differentiation. The recreation zoning of the Kaliningrad region was carried out in view of the geopolitical position, development of tourist infrastructure, and current and potential tourist specialisation of municipalities.
Urban planning of Russian urban districts: Practices, problems, solutionsAbstract
This article analyses the reasons behind and consequences of the deficiency of urban areas in Russian towns and identifies the factors affecting the demand for territories associated with urban planning, which determine planning decisions, urban environment zoning, and the development and confiscation of infrastructure. The authors consider methodological approaches and the ways to solve the problem of territory deficiency: artificial accretion areas (land reclamation, drainage, underwater construction) and the use of satellite town resources. The article emphasizes the necessity for the demarcation of suburban areas and their management. It is concluded that there is a need for the joint development of localities comprising urban agglomerations, as well as drawing up and implementing a single document describing the procedures of urban planning activities.
The use of renewable energy sources in the Kaliningrad region: Current state and prospectsAbstract
This paper examines the current condition and development prospects of the fuel and energy industry of the Kaliningrad region specified in regional programmes. The authors compare the potentials of different renewable energy sources and provide information on the exploitation of different renewable energy objects in the region. The article presents a preliminary assessment of the thermal capacity necessary for the residential area of an ecovillage with a population of 50,000 and suggests ensuring heat supply with the help of heat pumps.
The geoecological potential of sustainable development: The evolution of the concept and its structureAbstract
This article focuses on the evolution of views on the geoecological potential and related concepts. The author’s definition of the geoecological potential is offered. The article describes the structure of the geoecological potential through identifying and defining its natural and human capital components. The key elements of the natural capital are raw material, biological, water and a number of other ones. The human capital is divided into geodemographic and moral-cultural capitals.