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The humanities and social science

Russian history

Ober-hieromonks in the Russian Navy in the 18th century

Abstract

This article uses archive documents to consider the management of Orthodox priests serving in the Russian Navy in the 18th century. The author describes the duties of the Holy Synod, bishops’ administrations, and the Admiralty and naval ship commanders. Special attention is paid to ober-hieromonks and commanding hieromonks of the Navy. The author studies their responsibilities in different locations and presents new biographical information.

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The influence of political and socioeconomic processes in the Russian Empire on the development of the Baltic Fleet

Abstract

This paper explores the influence of the development processes taking place in the Russian Empire on the Baltic Fleet. Five periods of the Baltic Fleet development are identified. The Fleet is interpreted as a significant element of the state mechanism for defending national interests in peace and wartime.

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Fishing in Novgorod and Pskov Governorates and the related trades (the second half of the 19th/the beginning of the 20th centuries)

Abstract

This article uses published sources and literature to study the condition of peasant fishing trade in Novgorod and Pskov Governorates in the second half of the 19th/the beginning of the 20th centuries. The work focuses on analyzing the role of fishing trade in the peasant agriculture. The article describes the socioeconomic and environmental factors contributing to the spread of fishing in the Governorates. The author gives a brief description of fishing equipment used by peasants and emphasizes the wide spread of fishing cooperatives. It is shown that capitalism penetrated the trade when fishing entrepreneurs who used hired labour appeared alongside individual peasant fishermen. It is concluded that fishing continued to play an important role in the peasant economy of Novgorod and Pskov Governorates in the beginning of the 20th century through assuming a pronounced commercial nature with predominating capitalistic organization of trade.

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The legal aspects of community elimination during the Stolypin agrarian reform

Abstract

This article considers the legal content of the concept of "leaving the community" though analyzing the legal nature of the farmstead and district land tenure formed through placing land in personal ownership, individual allotments, and complete division of rural lands into farmsteads and isolated land plots. It is shown that the reform legislation did not suggest legal discrimination of the community, which retained its administrative, economic, and land-related functions.

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World War I refugees from the western regions of the Russian Empire: Sustaining life in the places of temporary residence

Abstract

This article analyses the process of development and functioning of the state system of support for World War I refugees from the western territories of the Russian Empire in case of the central provinces of European Russia. It is concluded that the state system of refugee support proved to be efficient and managed to solve the problem of evacuation and relocation, as well as that of meeting the basic needs of millions of refugees throughout the war period.

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The development of legislation on local self-government in the USSR and Russia in 1983—1993

Abstract

This article analyses the historical prerequisites for the development of the legal framework for local self-governance in the last years of the USSR and RSFSR and the first years of the Russian Federation, as well as its role in the political system and the social life of modern Russia. The author identifies the key contradictions in power relations between public and local authorities.

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Regional history

The Baltic states before and during World War II: The dilemma of independence

Abstract

This article considers the events of the 1930—1940s in the Baltics. The authors analyse changes in the political systems and international priorities of the ruling elites of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The influence of domestic factors on solving the problem of independence preservation in the conditions of world war is identified.

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Military sovkhozes of the Red Army in former East Prussia in 1945—1946

Abstract

This paper focuses on the ensuring of food supply for the military personnel of the Red Army and the German population in the first post-war years. Emphasis is placed on the development of new agricultural structures - subsidiary farms, enterprises, and, later, military sovkhozes, which created the basis for the agricultural industry after the Soviet population of the Kaliningrad region.

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Passages from the history of the Kaliningrad region: The first sitting of the Königsberg regional Office for Civil Affairs on June 26—27, 1946

Abstract

An analysis of the transcript of a meeting held on June 26—27, 1946 at the Königsberg Office for Civil Affairs helps consider the perspective of the civil administration and the commandment of the 11th Guards Army on the problems of the development of the Königsberg / Kaliningrad region in 1946. The meeting participants focused on the conflict between the civil and military authorities. Different models of relations between the military and civil administrative structures developed in the region’s towns and districts. The meeting also discussed the position of the German population and the flaws of trade and communication organization.

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Philosophy

Kant and the contemporary theory of international relations

Abstract

The main purpose of this article is to answer the question of the role of Kantian political philosophy for the theory of international relations. The answer is giving through the examination of the main trends in the interpretation of Kant's place in one of the major paradigms of the theory of international relations: realism, idealism, liberalism, and institutionalism. Author shows that Kant’s inclusion in a particular paradigm of international relations cannot be directly done. Otherwise, inevitably it comes to distortion and incorrect interpretation of the texts and ideas of Kant.

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The rhetorical turn in argumentation theory

Abstract

This article focuses on the key aspects of the rhetorical approach developed by Christopher Tindale and emphasizes its significance for modern theory of argumentation. The article examines the historical background of the rhetorical turn and its relation to informal logic and pragma-dialectics. The author argues that it is justified to consider different approaches to argumentation as complementary.

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The notion of ontology in the system model of argumentation

Abstract

This article analyzes the notion of ontology in computer science and contemporary argumentation theories. It introduces the notion of ontology into the system model of argumentation (SMA) in view of the specific features of the latter. The author analyses the role of ontology in building an argumentation model within SMA.

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Social and political studies

Inter-organizational networks as seen by western economic sociology: An analysis of theoretical approaches

Abstract

This paper analyses theoretical approaches to studying interorganizational networks offered in foreign economic sociology. The authors describe main conceptual problems, the key aspects of network form of interorganizational interaction, and embeddedness effects.

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The ethno-political discourse of regional identity in former Yugoslavia: The Bosnian syndrome

Abstract

This article analyses the features of national identity in modern Bosnia and Herzegovina. The limitrophe ethnocentrism dominant in the regions of former Yugoslavia contributes to increased tension. It is assumed that all political problems of Bosnia and Herzegovina relate to the lack of a common identity, whereas the creation of a strong civic identity will yield more favorable democratic results.

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The main indicators of social administra tive expert system

Abstract

This article considers the empirical operationalization of basic indicators of social and administrative expert system. These indicators include management, leadership, and leading management. The authors analyze the dynamics of manifestations of these indicators. It is concluded that the modern process of organizational management evolves towards using management resources focusing on the social aspects of intra-organizational interactions.

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