IKBFU's Vestnik

Natural and medical sciences

Introduction

Geoecology and geochemistry

The transformation of roadside geosystems of the Smolensk region under the impact of motor transport complex

Abstract

This article shows that the annual increase in traffic in the Smolensk region affects the environmental features of roadside land pollution by oil products, heavy metals, waste, calcium chloride, and magnesium. The author emphasizes an increase in traffic accidents and road-traffic fatality on the Moscow — Minsk international route. The environmental — geographical situation on regional roads is proved to be more favorable.

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The geoecological conditions of apiculture product manufacturing in the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

This article focuses on the problem of agrarian land use transformation in the Kaliningrad region in 1960-2011. The author offers and assessment of the geoecological conditions of administrative units, as well as an index of favourable apiculture development conditions.

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The impact of changes in dissolved organic carbon concentration in a solution on the sorption of platinum compounds

Abstract

This article considers the impact of changing dissolved organic carbon concentration in a solution on the sorption of platinum (II), (IV) compounds (K2PtCl4, H2PtCl6) at different soil horizons. The authors prove that even small concentrations of dissolved organic carbon play an important role in platinum sorption in soil and background minerals.

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Protection of steel from corrosion and hydrogen absorption by organic inhibitors: experimental and quantum-chemical studies

Abstract

The step-strip anodic dissolution technique was used to obtain concentration profiles of cathodic evolved H2 across the depth of Cr-Ni1810 steel under corrosion in water-salt media in the presence of SRB. The proposed approximation of the experimentally obtained distribution of hydrogen along the depth of steel by means of standard Gaussian function made it possible to establish the integral hydrogen content of the sub-layer (up to 80 μm) with high degree of accuracy. The efficiency of protective actions of the studied organic compounds against corrosion and hydrogen absorption by steel were compared with the data of quantum chemical computations performed for isolated molecules of the studied inhibitors with the help of the MNDO method. The results obtained point to
a difference in the protective mechanisms of the studies inhibitors in case of anticorrosion action and hydrogen absorption by steel.

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Geomorphology

The modern natural-anthropogenic prerequisites for the transformation of eolian coastal-marine natural complexes

Abstract

This article offers the results of an analysis of natural and anthropogenic impacts on eolian coastal marine natural complexes of the Curonian and Vistula spits. The authors identify the contribution of natural and anthropogenic factors to the transformation of the spits’ natural complexes.

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The significance of terrain for the assessment of natural complex sensitivity to human impact

Abstract

This article considers the influence of terrain on the assessment of natural system sensitivity to anthropogenic impact. The author presents a classification model of natural system sensitivity to anthropogenic chemical and mechanical impacts. The article examines certain cases of the influence of terrain on the assessment of natural complex sensitivity in the areas of oil exploration drilling located in different geomorphic regions of the Kaliningrad region.

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Remote research on the variability of the thermokarst lake shorelines in the Altai permafrost region

Abstract

This article presents a study into the shape variation of thermokarst lakes coastal boundaries carried out on six test sites in Eshtykol in the Altai Mountains. The authors describe the methodological issues of the statistical analysis of lake boundary variability with the help of satellite images. The authors show that the degree of lake shoreline variability is increasing with time. The study results can be used in modeling the fields of thermokarst lakes and research on thermokarst dynamics on permafrost territories in the conditions of climatic changes.

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On the hydrogeology of karstosphere: the case of the Urals and the Urals region

Abstract

This article considers the hydrogeological parameters of the karstosphere and emphasises its unstable regime in the transit areas. Deep karst water zones and their catchment areas are more stable, in discharge areas they are characterised as weakly thermal. The sulphate karst is the site of formation of sulphate-calcium water with mineralisation of ≥ 3.5 g/l. Sulphate-sodium and soda subtype water with mineralisation of 0.3÷0.5 g/l forms in the areas of development of younger sediments. The hydrochemical method proved to be very
efficient when studying karst.

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Hydrometeorology and hydrology

The types of atmospheric water circulation over the Atlantic and the formation of the extreme North Sea water inflows into the Baltic Sea

Abstract

This article emphasises that one of the conditions for the formation of extreme inflow events from the North into the Baltic Sea is the long-time impact of same-type atmospheric processes on the water surface. There is a need to consider the intensity and the duration of one-direction atmospheric processes. The authors focus on the features and types of large-scale atmospheric circulation over
the North-East Atlantic, which determined the regional atmospheric processes over the Baltic Sea during the formation of a large inflow. The article analyses the inflows of December 22, 1975 — January 14, 1976, and the inflow of January 16—222003, as well as baric topography (500hPa) and daily synoptic maps.

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The results of the weekly monitoring of the Vistula Bay coast in the area of Pribrezhny village in 2011-2012

Abstract

This article offers the results of regular (weekly) monitoring of the coast of the Vistula Lagoon in the area of the village of Pribrezhny (the Kaliningrad region) throughout the year. The steady profile measurements of the beach width, photographing, coast description, the calculation of changes in the relative level of the Vistula Lagoon, and the analysis of the wind regime over the observation period made it possible to reveal the coast dynamics, assess the stability of the beach and coastal slope condition, as well as the influence of the
main regime-forming factor — the wind.

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The computer simulation of tsunami wave breaking against a steep shore

Abstract

This article offers a computer simulation for incompressible stratified fluid based on Euler’s equations. The ocean and the atmosphere above it are considered as an integral continuous environment. At the water-air surface, the density changes abruptly from ρ = ρwater = 1000 kg/m3 for water to ρ = ρair = 1.2 kg/m3 for air. The solution to model equations is generalised. The mathematical mechanism
of equation solving suggests automatic smoothing of density in the area of wave breaking and formation of a thin fluid layer with an intermediate density.

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Soil science and botany

The characteristic of the vegetative land cover of the Kaliningrad peninsula ecosystems

Abstract

This article offers an ecological analysis of natural ecosystems used in the monitoring of the microflora of soil lands. The authors characterize the soilvegetation cover of the ecosystems of the Kaliningrad Peninsula. The difference in the species composition of phytocenoses and their environmental conditions is identified.

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Social and economic geography

Maritime transport as a system-building element of the Baltic transnational transport region

Abstract

The object of research presented in the article is maritime transport as a system building type of the Baltic transborder transport region identified within the Baltic region. The author describes maritime transport as a key element of the transnational transport region ensuring the activation and development of new forms of international cooperation in the Baltic area.

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The typology of the medical and environmental situation in the municipalities of the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

A cross-spectrum analysis of socially and environmentally induced disease rate in population serves as the basis for the authors’ typology of administrative districts of the Kaliningrad region according to medical and environmental factors. The authors identify the dependence between the quality of environment, healthcare infrastructure and the health condition of population.

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Spatial development of network entrepreneurial structures of the service industry: a methodology for selecting towns for opening new outlets

Abstract

This article deals with the phenomenon of genesis and development of network forms in entrepreneurship. Special attention is given to the spatial organization of network entrepreneurial structure’s economic activity under the conditions of geographic broadening of the network interaction scope. The author offers methods of town selection in the process of planning and development of network entrepreneurial structures in terms of locating new retail outlets of chain stores.

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Academic life

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