Lutheranism in Finland: past and present
The article focuses on the spatial and temporal differentiation of Lutheranism in Finland. The study aims to identify historical and geographical features of the development of Lutheran space in Finland, as well as modern trends in its transformation. This study is very relevant, since Lutheranism is currently the major confession ...
A ‘Secret alliance’ or ‘Freedom from any alliances’? NATO accession debate in Sweden and Finland, 1991—2016
The authors analyze the policy of NATO towards Sweden and Finland, the neutral states of Northern Europe, in 1991—2016. The authors emphasize that Finland and Sweden have always been of high strategic importance for NATO and the EU defence policy. The authors investigate the main areas of cooperation between ...
Finland’s policy towards the USSR in the 1980s—at the beginning of the 1990s in the Finnish historiography
The article is a review of the body of literature published in Finland during the 1990s — 2010s, describing the evolution of Finland's foreign policy towards the USSR in the last decade of the Cold War. The author identifies chronological stages of the study of Finland’s policy towards the Soviet Union and ...
Territorial differences in the innovative development of Sweden, Finland, and the North-western federal district of the Russian Federation
This article considers the innovative component of the economies of Sweden, Finland, and the Noreth-western federal district (NWFD) of the Russian Federation. The authors present the results of a comparative analysis of research and technological potential of the regions and their administrativeterritorial units in terms of innovative ...
Development of Aland Islands: major trends and challenges
... Åland, 2013, available at: http://www.finlex.fi/sv/laki/kaannokset/1991/en19911144.pdf (accessed 26 January 2013).
2. Posol'stvo Finljandii, Moskva. General'noe konsul'stvo Finljandii, Sankt-Peterburg. Obshhaja informacija o Finljandii [Embassy of Finland, Moscow. Consulate General of Finland, St. Petersburg. General information about Finland], 2013,
available at: http://www.finland.org.ru/public/default.aspx?nodeid=37009&contentlan=15&culture=ru-RU (accessed 26 January 2013).
3. Deryabin, ...
Serge Korff, the Last Acting Governor-General of the Great Duchery of Finland
... видный русский государствовед, административист и юрист-международник (К 130-летию со дня рождения) // Государство и право. 2007. № 3.
6. National archives of Finland. Chancellery of governor-general of Finland, personal folder 121, box FH9, Korff.
On the international cooperation of North-West Russia in the field of innovations in the Baltic
This article focuses on the cooperation between the constituent entities of the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation and the Baltic countries (Finland, Estonia, and Norway) in the field of innovations at national and regional levels, as well as at the level of corporate cooperation. The author reviews successful implementation of innovation projects within cross-border and transnational cooperation ...
Development of cross-border tourist and recreational regions on the Karelian section of the Russian-Finnish border
... recreation in the Baltic Sea Region have been extensively studied, there are still areas, which require further research. The aim of this article is to identify regions having active cross-border tourism and recreation in the adjacent territories of Finland and the Republic of Karelia. The authors propose to use an indicator characterizing the volume of incoming tourist flows. The number of tourists is not only indicative of the development of cross-border tourism and recreation; it is also one of ...
The contribution of V. I. Lytkin to the establishment of scientific ties between the Komi Republic and Finland
This article is devoted to the development of cooperation between the Komi Republic and Finland in the 20th century and the contribution of one of leading specialists in Finno-Ugric studies V. O. Lytkin to this process.
Краткий очерк научной поездки к зырянам в 1901—1902 гг....
On the development of the "Greater Finland" iIdeology
This article focuses on the role of Länsipohja and Ruija in the "Greater Finland" ideology. The growing interest in the closely related peoples in the 1920s became a prerequisite for the foundation of the Academic Karelia Society (AKS). The author addresses the activity of the AKS concerning Länsipohja and Ruija.
Disease control and border lockdown at the EU’s internal borders during Covid-19 pandemic: the case of Finland
The article discusses the lockdown of the EU’s internal borders during the Covid-19 pandemic in Finland. Special attention is paid to bordering as a means of disease control and the governments’ aim to “protect the population and secure functions of society”. Not only did the government restrict flights and ‘non-essential’ travel from ...
Trends in the development of cross-border trade in the Russian-Finnish borderlands
... historical periods and juxtapose the pertinent institutional, organisational and infrastructural settings. We explain why the direction of the flow of finance and goods changed. Until the early 20th century, goods were brought to and money collected from Finland’s borderlands. Since the 1920s, the opposite situation has been observed. The latter trend has been growing in recent years. In this article, we aim at providing a periodisation and detecting the trends in and features of the evolution of cross-border ...
The potential for expanding inter-cluster cooperation between the ship-building industries of Estonia, Finland, and North-West Russia
The shipbuilding industry clusters in the Eastern Baltic Sea region, i. e. Estonia, Finland and North-West Russia, may benefit significantly from increased mutual cooperation; however, the international networks between the clusters are still poorly developed. The aim of this article is to analyse the preconditions for cluster internationalization ...
Population Change in the Neighbouring Regions of Russia and the European Union States
... and EU statistical offices and map the results obtained. I identify significant differences between border regions and cities. The most adverse demographic situation is observed in the borderlands of the Baltics, a slightly better one in Poland and Finland. As to Russia’s border regions, a population increase is characteristic of Saint Petersburg and the Leningrad and Kaliningrad regions. Yet, a number of cities in the immediate vicinity of the border face a population decline. The demographic ...
The Denominational Space of Modern Sweden: Christianity
... 150—152. (In Russ.)
6. Murashova, T. V. 2013, Marginality factor in the structure of confessional space of Pskov area, Pskovskii regionologicheskii zhurnal, no. 10, p. 177—183. (In Russ.)
7. Balabeykina, O. A. 2014, Traditional Christian confessions of Finland territorial aspect, Izvestiya Russkogo geograficheskogo obstchestva, Vol. 146, no. 5, p. 56—62. (In Russ.)
8. Balabeykina O., Martynov V. 2015, Lutheranism in Finland: Past and Present, Balt. Reg., Vol. 7, no. 4, p. 113—121. DOI 10.5922/2079-8555-2015-4-9....
The characteristics of the biogenic element of the runoff fr om the drainage areas of the Gulf of Finland basin experiencing a lim ited anthropogenic impact
This article analyses characteristics of 25 rivers of the Gulf of Finland basin where the monitoring of the streamflow chemical composition was performed. The authors consider the dynamics of biogenic element content in the streamflow, the relation of the drainage areas to certain landscapes, the share of agricultural ...
Universities of the North-western federal district in Russian-Finnish research cooperation
This article focuses on the cooperation between universities of the North-western federal district (NWFD) of the Russian Federation, Sweden, and Finland, its intensity and territorial differentiation. The analysis was conducted on the basis of public domain information on the international activity of universities available on their official websites. The authors identify the principle areas and ...
Gas infrastructure development in the countries of East Baltic as a way to increase energy security
... gazoviki hotjat stroit' terminal v Jestonii [Latvian gas companies want to build a terminal in Estonia],2012, REGNUM, 6 July, available at: http://www. regnum. ru/news/1548989.html (accessed 25 December 2012).
19. Finljandija planiruet import SPG [Finland plans to import LNG], 2012, Informacionnyj portal «Gornaja jencilopedija» [Information Portal «Mountain entsilopediya»], 4 April, available at: http://news-mining.ru/news/finlyandiya_ planiruet_import_spg/ (accessed 25 December 2012).
The geochemical characteristics of the bottom sediment in the pockmark area of the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland
It is the first time pockmark-like structures have been detected in the south-eastern part of the Gulf of Finland with the help of a side-scan sonar and a profile recorder. The analysis of the distribution of microcomponents in the bottom sediment indicates that the pockmark area is located in the geochemical barrier border zone where the reducing medium ...
Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region
... Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.
1. Burnaeva, E. M. 2007, Finljandija: tendencii zarubezhnogo investirovanija [Finland: trends of foreign investment], Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [World Economy and International Relations], no. 7, p. 30—39.
2. Volkov, A. M. 2005, Shvecija: investicionnaja model' v dejstvii [Sweden: The investment model in ...
The innovative process in the Baltic Sea region
....eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/themes (accessed 9 July 2012).
5. Federal State Statistics Service of Russian Federation 2011,Russia in figures— 2011, available at: http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b11_12/Main.htm (accessed 9 July 2012).
6. Finland’s Ministry of Employment and the Economy 2012, Innovative environments,
available at: http://www.tem.fi/index.phtml?l=en&s=2362 (accessed 9 July 2012).
7. Schwab, K. (ed.). 2011, The Global Competitiveness Report 2011—2012, World Economic ...
The Baltic Finnish Peoples Divided by State and Administrative Borders: Territorial Development of the Karelians, Vepsians, and Setos
... state and administrative borders on the territorial and demographic development of small ethnic groups. The article analyses the case of three Baltic Finnish peoples living in the Russian North-West and divided by borders of different levels: Karelians (Finland, the Republic of Karelia, and the Leningrad and Tver regions), Vepsians (the Republic of Karelia and the Leningrad and Vologda regions), and Setos (Estonia and the Pskov region). The analysis is based on the cartographic and statistical demographic ...
Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region
Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as ...
Geopolitical and Geo-economic Changes in the Baltic Sea Region at the Turn of the XX—XXI centuries
... socialist countries in the Baltic Sea region. They were signatories of the Warsaw Pact and members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (the Soviet Union, Poland and East Germany). The Baltic Sea region housed four market economies (Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Germany). Only two of them were members of NATO and the EU (Germany and Denmark). At present, there are eight EU countries in the region; six of them are NATO members (Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia),...
Cross-border Tourism in the Russian Northwest: General Trends and Features of Development
& usg=AFQjCNGi7ShTHTB6uG8iT2LbDKhdTFxlEw&bvm=bv.53217764,d.bGE (дата обращения: 14.10.2013).
19. Miettinen E. Border areas as tourist destination for Russian travellers: russian tourists in Finland // Pearls of the coniferous forest. 20th anniversary of North Karelia Biosphere Reserve. October 30 — November 2, 2012. Finland, Joensuu.P. 86—87.
20. Palmowski T. Problems ofcross-border cooperation between Polandand THE Kaliningradoblast ...
The International Association of Teachers of Russian Language and Literature and its Activity in the Baltic Sea States
... main lines of activity. The authors focus on the activity of MAPRYAL in the Baltic Sea States offering a detailed description of the International Festival of Russian Language in the Baltic Sea States, and the events held by MAPRYAL in Germany, Poland, Finland, Sweden, and Denmark.
Brunova Natalia, Moskovkin Leonid, Yurkov Yevgeny
Baltic Region, Russian language, Russian language functioning, Russian language festivals, cultural and educational events
Innovation Capacity of Russia and the Baltics: a Comparative Approach
... comparative analysis of innovative development in Russia and the Baltic Sea countries based on the calculation of an integral research and technological potential index for the Russian Federation, the Northwestern Federal District of Russia, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Germany, Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia. The paper describes the level of research and technological development of Russia in 2008—2010 in terms of human resources, R&D, material and technical components, and the transformation ...
Major infrastructure projects and the foreign policy of the Baltic states in 2010—2014
... at:http://rus.postimees.ee/2570070/nachalos-testirovanie-morskogo-kabelja-estlink-2 (accessed 22.10.2013).
25. V Jestonii jelektrojenergija dorozhe pochti v dva raza, chem v Finljandii [In Estonia, the more electricity is almost two times higher than in Finland], 2013, Postimees: Värsked uudised Eestist ja välismaalt, available at: http://rus.postimees.ee/1280100/v-jestonii-jelektrojenergija-dorozhe-pochti-v-dva-raza-chemv-
finljandii (accessed 25.06.2013).
26. Pavuk, О. 2013, Pohozhe na demagogiju ...
An Assessment of the Economic Performance of the EU Baltic Region States
The paper explores how the common economic space, a product of the EU, influenced the economies of the Baltic Sea Region states in 1995—2015. The authors investigate changes in the economic performance of the developed (Germany, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden) and Eastern European countries (Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia) during the integration of the latter states into the EU. Performance dynamics is analyzed for eight EU Baltic Sea Region countries. Three Russian Baltic regions constitute ...
NATO Policies in the Baltics: Objectives and Priorities
... pretext for increased military presence in the region is the alleged need to defend the Baltic states from the Russian threat. Special attention is paid to the attempts of Western military strategists to encourage the neutral Nordic states — Sweden and Finland — to accede to NATO. This would lead to the organisation’s northern enlargement. The current situation suggests that to ease tension in the Baltic Sea region Russia has not only to respond adequately to emerging military threats but also to ...
Baltic Cooperation in Marine Spatial Planning
... principal tool of the EU’s integrated policy. Many European countries of the Baltic region are seeking cooperation with Russia to preserve the natural and economic environment of the Baltic Sea. Most joint spatial planning projects have been initiated by Finland, Sweden, Germany, and Poland.
Palmowski T., Tarkowski M.
Baltic Sea region, European Union, integrated coastal area management, spatial planning, Poland, Russia
The territorial differentiation of demographic development of the Baltic macroregion
Office of Estonia. URL:
An assessment of the potential impact of the construction of a deepwater seaport on the hydrological regime of the Vistula lagoon
... tehnicheskih sredstv.Saint Petersburg, pp. 180—185.
4. Sergeeva, L., Krasnov, E. 2001. The Baltik — Sea-level events in the system of global change. Third Study Conference on BALTEX. Assembly Hall of Alands Parlament Building Mariehamn, Aland, Finland, pp. 119—120.
5. Sergeeva, L. G. 2003. Mehanizm nagonnyh javlenij i ego osobennosti u poberezh'ja juzhnoj chasti Baltijskogo morja. In: Jekologija regiona Baltijskogo morja.Kaliningrad, pp. 12—18.
6. Inzhebejkin, Ju. I. 2003. Kolebanija ...
A study into the passive tracer and Lagrangian particles propagation in the coastal area of South-East Baltic
....-мат. наук., Калининград, 2010. С. 26.
3. Zhurbas V., Laanemets J., Vahtera E. Modeling of the mesoscale structure of coupled upwelling/downwelling events and the related input of nutrients to the upper mixed layer in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea // J. Geophys. Res. 2008. Vol. 113.doi:10.1029/2007JC004280.
4. Журбас В. М., Ю. Элькен, Г. Вяли и др. Пути переноса взвешенных частиц в придонном слое южной Балтики ...
Development of software module calculating area of the ground wave propagation for the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
... Европейского союза // Проблемы развития морского флота : сб. науч. тр. СПб., 2004. С. 66—75.
Report VAL34-013153. The Implementation of the VTMIS System for the Gulf of Finland. VTT Industrial Systems, 2002. P. 45—57.
Vaganova V. V., Tkachenko S. N., Novikova E. P., Bodnya A. V.
safety, wave propagation, GMDSS, module
On the models of modern research and education pol-icy in the Baltic region states
This article provides a comparative analysis of the mechanisms of education policies pursued by the governments of Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The authors identify similarities and differences in the funding mechanisms, direction of reforms, the role of education system modernization in the innovative development of the Baltic Sea region, and the mechanisms ...
Russian foreign trade and integration processes in the Baltic region
... Warszawa, 1995.
of Estonia.URL: www.stat.ee
Sea States. Warszawa, 1995.
Korneevets V. S.
foreign commerce, Baltic Sea macroregion, integration process,...
Clustering and branding in the Baltic tourist destination
... Иркутск, 2006.
7. Портер М. Международная конкуренция: конкурентные преимущества стран. М., 1993.
8. Финляндия. Города и курорты. URL:
(дата обращения: 11.11.2016).
9. Швеция: курорты балтийского побережья. URL:
(дата обращения: ...
Microelement content in lichen hypogymnia physodes in the forests of the Kaliningrad region
... "reference point" for monitoring air pollution research in the Kaliningrad region.
1. Kauppi M., Mikkonen A. Floristic versus single species analysis in the use of epiphytic lichens as indicators of air pollution in a boreal forest region, Nothern Finland // Flora. 1980. Vol. 169. № 4. P. 255—281.
2. Nash T. H. III, Gries C. The response of lichens to atmospheric depo-sition with an emphasis on the Arctic // Sci. Total Environ. 1995. Vol. 160/161. P. 737—747.
3. Бязров Л. Г. Лишайники ...
The prospects of entrepreneurship in the formation of new hi-tech markets in the Baltic Sea region
... country-specific list of basic markets, which can be developed by small and medium enterprises in a short-term perspective. In the structure of the Baltic Sea region a special position is held by the Nordic countries — Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland — major regional innovators, as well as a group of South-eastern regions that serve as innovation consumers. Best hopes rest with information and communications technologies and biotechnologies, which are expected to become the centre of major ...
Urban Planning Development and Seismic Safety Provision in the Kaliningrad region
... densely populated territories located in moderate seismic regions. We perform a brief engineering analysis of the consequences of the Kaliningrad earthquake of September 21, 2004. The earthquake was felt across the Sambia Peninsula, in the Baltics, Finland, some parts of Poland and Belarus, and even in Saint Petersburg. Earthquakes occurred on the territory of today’s Kaliningrad — in the city of Konigsberg — in 1803 and 1904. For many years, the Kaliningrad region’s seismic risks were underestimated....
Four Days of June ‘41
... государственной безопасности СССР в Великой Отечественной войне. М., 1995. Т. 1. Кн. 2.
10. Seppälä H. Suomi hyökkääjänä 1941. Porvoo; Hels.; Juva, 1984.
11. Menger M. Deutschland und Finland im zweiten Weltkrieg. Berlin, 1988.
12. Носков А. М. Скандинавский плацдарм во Второй мировой войне. М.,1977.
13. Правда. 1989. 8 мая.
14. Оборона Ленинграда. Воспоминания ...
Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies
... 29 (2):164—92.
Back to Baltoscandia? European Union and Geo-Conceptual Remaking of the European North // Geopolitics. 2003. 8 (1):72—100.
(ed.). The two-level game:
's relations with
and the European Union. Vol. 2.
: Aleksanteri Institute
Introduction: The Grand Redesign // Ambivalent neighbors: the EU, NATO and the price of membership / ed. A. Lieven and D. Trenin.
Some features of external migration processes in the coastal regions of the Western borderlands of Russia
... closer ties migration-wise with other russian regions and foreign countries, and are characterized by increased migration efficiency. A distinctive feature of the migration geography is intense migration turnover with neighboring countries: first of all, Finland, Estonia and Norway. The coastal position becomes an attractive factor for all the studied regions, except for the northern ones. The border can also affect the migration adversely both in the northern regions, and in the Leningrad region, St....
On certain groups in the Soviet outbound tourism (on the example of the Kaliningrad region)
... туризма в СССР. URL:
(дата обращения: 20.10.2017).
14. Kostiainen A. Mass Tourists, Groups and Delegates: Travel from Finland to the Soviet Union from 1950 to 1980. URL:
. htm (дата обращения: 27.11.2017).
tourism, outbound tourism, specialized tourist groups, groups of related jobs, international ...
The principle of mutual recognition of court orders within legal cooperation on criminal cases in the European Union
... European Evidence Warrant.
on the functioning of the European Union, consolidated version //
Conclusions, Tampere European Council 15 and 16 October 1999. URL
(дата обращения: 26.09.2011).
of measures to implement the principle of mutual recognition of decisions in criminal matters (2001/C12/02) // Official Journal. C 012. 15.01.2001. P....