Kantian Journal

2016 Issue №1(55)

Studies into the history of Russian Neo-Kantianism in Poland

Abstract

The article deals with the jey areas of Russian Neo-Kantianism studies in Poland. Although the number and quality of studies on the history of Russian Neo-Kantianism cannot be equated to those on the history of German Neo-Kantianism, the situation is improving. The authors stress the undeniable progress in Russian Neo-Kantianism studies in Poland: monographs, articles, collections, and research projects dedicated to certain scholars or aspects of the history of Russian Neo-Kantianism have appeared recenly. The authors believe that a breakthrough in the Polish Neo-Kantianism Russian studies is associated with the works on Russian thought by Sister Teresa Obolevitch. The authors consider A. Noras’s idea about the development of the neo-Kantian concept into post-Neo-Kantianism as rather heuristic. One of the main features of this development is the ontologization of cognitive process and the recognition of existential characteristics of the knowing subject as primary and exerting a significant impact on its cognitive structure. This ‘ontological turn’, typical of Russian Neo-Kantianism and, in particular, Sergey Hessen, Boris Yakovenko, and Vasily Sesemann, is, on the one hand, the hallmark of entire Russian philosophy, including its most representative parts, namely, Russian religious philosophy (ontologism). On the other hand, it brings the philosophical efforts of Russian neo-Kantians closer to the concept proposed by the creator of ‘new ontology’ Nicolai Hartmann. Therefore, Polish researchers make successful efforts aimed at identifying the ‘intersections’ between the doctrines of Russian neo-Kantians and those of their German colleagues and teachers from Marburg, Freiburg, and Heidelberg, as well as Russian religious philosophy and N. Hartmann’s philosophical constructs.

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Neo-Kantian and phenomenological axiology in N. N. Alekseev’s philosophy of law

Abstract

This paper analyzes receptions of phenomenological and neo-Kantian axiology trends in the interpretation of the concept and status of value in N. N. Alekseev’s philosophy of law. The author identifies the role of Neo-Kantian nomothetic—idiographic division of sciences proposed by the Southwest German school of Neo-Kantianism in interpreting the essence of law within Aleseev’s philosophy. It is shown that Alekseev uses Windelband's distinction between the due and the existing as a convenient methodological technique for understanding features of social phenomena. The article considers the context of Windelband’s philosophy in Alekseev’s interpretation of the role of the rule in philosophy of law. It is shown that Alekseev employs the distinction between the a priori and empirical, suggested by the theory of values, in his philosophy. Values are identified as a basis for the development of law and morals in Alekseev’s philosophy. Comparing reality and values makes it possible to see how Alekseev combines the id eas of axiology of Neo-Kanitianism and phenomenology. To narrow the gap between the a priori and empirical in the theory of values proposed by the Southern German school of Neo-Kantianism, Alekseev uses the solutions proposed by M. Scheler’s phenomenological axiology. It is stressed that Alekseev does not adopt either M. Scheler’s personalistic approach or his hierarchy of values. In his mature period, Alekseev supplements his interpretation of values with the religious aspect. He understands religion as a means to link the a priori and empirical and translate both into reality. It is emphasized that religion becomes a tool for understanding values as rules. It is concluded that Alekseev’s philosophy of law combines Neo-Kantian and phenomenological principles with religious aspects.

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