The coasts we live in: can there be a single definition for a coastal zone?
Throughout the history of humankind, people have settled along seashores. The gradual accumulation of population and industrial activity in coastal areas has created preconditions for coastalisation — the movement of people and socio-economic activity to marine coasts. To date, coastal areas have a higher rate of economic development, fostering migration and an influx of capital across the globe. Scholars and policymakers voice concerns about the asymmetry of regional development and the increasing anthropogenic impact on the coastal ecosystem. It reinforces the importance of coastal zone management. In this study, we use an example of the Baltic region to identify the coastalisation patterns in the Baltic region and answer the question, whether there can be a single definition of the coastal zone of the Baltic region. According to a broad definition, the Baltic macro-region is nearly all coastal and, consequently, all settlements are influenced by the coastalisation effect. We have studied urban population dynamics in 128 cities of 45 coastal regions through the lens of various characteristics of a coastal city — the distance from the sea (10, 50, 100, and 150 km), location in a coastal region (NUTS 2), availability of a port and its primary maritime activity (tankers, cargo, fishing, passenger, recreational vessels and others). The research results suggest that despite the strong coherence of the Baltic region countries, there should not be a single delimitation approach to defining the coastal zone. Overall, the most active marine economic processes occur in the zone up to 10 km from the seacoast and 30 km from ports and port infrastructure. However, in the case of Sweden, Poland, and Latvia, the coastal zone can be extended to 50 km, and in Germany — up to 150 km inland.
1. McFadden, L. 2007, Governing Coastal Spaces: The Case of Disappearing Science in Integrated Coastal Zone Management, Coastal Management, vol. 35, no. 4, p. 429—443. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08920750701525768.
2. Mee, L. 2012, Between the devil and the deep blue sea: the coastal zone in an era of globalisation, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol. 96, p. 1—8. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2010.02.013.
3. Cantasano, N., Pellicone, G. 2014, Marine and river environments: a pattern of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Calabria (Southern Italy), Ocean Coastal Management, no. 89, p. 71—78. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.12.007.
4. Harvey, N., Nicholls, R. 2008, Global sea-level rise and coastal vulnerability, Sustainability Science, no. 3, p. 5—7.
5. Small, C., Nicholls, R.J. 2003, A global analysis of human settlement in coastal zones, Journal of Coastal Research, vol. 19, no. 3, p. 584—599.
6. Barbier, E.B. et al. 2008, Coastal Ecosystem-Based Management with Nonlinear Ecological Functions and Values, Science, no. 319, p. 321—323. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1150349.
7. Pak, A., Majd, F. 2011, Integrated coastal management plan in free trade zones, a case study, Ocean and Coastal Management, no. 54, p. 129—136.
8. Blackburn, S., Marques, C. 2013, Mega-urbanization on the coast. In: Pelling, M., Blackburn, S. (eds.) Megacities and the Coast: risk, resilience and transformation (Chapter 1, p. 25—26), London and New York, Routledge.
9. Burbridge, P.R. 2004, A critical review of progress towards Integrated coastal Management in Baltic sea region, Coastline Reports, no. 2, p. 63—75.
10. Cracknell, A.P. 1999, Remote sensing techniques in estuaries and coastal zones an update, International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 20, no. 3, p. 485—496. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/014311699213280.
11. El-Sabh, M., Demers, S., Lafontaine, D. 1998, Coastal management and sustainable development: From Stockholm to Rimouski, Ocean and Coastal Management, no. 39, p. 1—24.
12. Hinrichsen, D. 1990, Our Common Seas: Coasts in Crisis, London, Earthscan.
13. Kummu, M., de Moel, H., Salvucci, G., Viviroli, D., Ward, P., Varis, O. 2016, Over the hills and further away from coast: global geospatial patterns of human and environment over the 20th–21st centuries, Environmental Research Letters, no. 11. doi: https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/3/034010.
14. Makhnovsky, D.E. 2014, Primorye regions of Europe: economic development at the turn of the XX and XXI centuries, Balt. Reg., no. 4, p. 50—66. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.5922/2074-2079-8555-4-4.
15. Rakodi, C., Treloar, D. 1997, Urban development and coastal zone management. An international review, TWPR, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 401—424.
16. Shi, C., Hutchinson, S.M., Yu, L., Xu, S. 2001, Towards a sustainable coast: an integrated coastal zone management framework for Shanghai, People’s Republic of China, Ocean and Coastal Management, no. 44, p. 411—427.
17. Small, C., Cohen, J. 2004, Continental Physiography, Climate, and the Global Distribution of Human Population, Current Anthropology, vol. 45, no. 2, p. 269—277.
18. Turner, R. K., Subak, S., Adger, W.N. 1996, Pressures, trends, and impacts in coastal zones: Interactions between socioeconomic and natural systems, Environmental Management, vol. 20, no. 2, p. 159—173. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01204001.
19. Valev, E.B. 2009, Problems of development and interaction of coastal territories in Europe, Regional studies, no. 1, p. 11—23.
20. Suárez de Vivero, J.L., Rodríguez Mateos, J.C. 2005, Coastal Crisis: The Failure of Coastal Management in the Spanish Mediterranean Region, Coastal Management, vol. 33, no. 2, p. 197—214. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08920750590917602.
21. McGranahan, G., Balk, D., Anderson, B. 2007, The rising tide: assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones Environ, Urbanization, no. 19, p. 17—37.
22. Boak, H.E., Turner, I.L. 2005, Shoreline Definition and Detection: A Review, Journal of Coastal Research, 21 (4), p. 688—703. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2112/03-0071.1.
23. Carter, B. 1988, Coastal environments: an introduction to the physical, ecological, and cultural systems of coastlines, Ireland, Academic Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/C2009-0-21648—5.
24. Clark, J.R. 1996, Coastal zone management handbook, Routledge.
25. Fınkl, C.W. 2004, Coastal Classification: Systematic Approaches to Consider in the Development of a Comprehensive Scheme, Journal of Coastal Research, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 166—213.
26. Fletcher, S., Smith, H.D. 2007, Geography and Coastal Management, Coastal Management, vol. 35, no. 4, p. 419—427. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/08920750701525750.
27. He, S., Wang, C. 2010, Socio-Economic Impact Assessment for Exploration of Coastal Zone in Yantai Region, Journal of Sustainable Development, vol. 3, no. 1, p.136—141.
28. Hynes, S., Farrelly, N. 2012, Defining standard statistical coastal regions for Ireland, Marine Policy, vol. 36, no. 2, p. 393—404.
29. Woodroffe, D.C. 2002, Coasts: form, process and evolution, Cambridge, U. K. New York.
30. Colgan, C.S. 2004, Employment and wages for the U.S. ocean and coastal economy, Monthly Labor Review, vol. 127, no. 11, p. 24—30. doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/41861776.
31. Kildow, J.T., McIlgorm, A. 2010, The importance of estimating the contribution of the oceans to national economies, Marine Policy, no. 34, p. 367—74.
32. Morrissey, K. 2015, An inter and intra-regional exploration of the marine sector employment and deprivation in England, Geographical Journal, no. 181, p. 295—303. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/geoj.12099.
33. Collet, I. 2010, Portrait of EU coastal regions, no.38, Statistics in focus. Eurostat, European Union.
34. Bezrukov, L.A. 2008, Continental-oceanic dichotomy in international and regional development. Novosibirsk, Geo.
35. Cox, M.E., Johnstone, R., Robinson, J. 2006, Relationships between perceived coastal waterway condition and social aspects of quality of life, Ecology and Society, vol. 11, no. 1, available at: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss1/art35/ (accessed 15.02.2021).
36. Jacobson, C., Carter, R.W., Thomsen, D.C., Smith, T.F. 2014, Monitoring and evaluation for adaptive coastal management, Ocean and Coastal Management, no. 89, p. 51—57.
37. Latha, S.S., Prasad, M.B.K. 2016, Current status of coastal zone management practices in India. In: Ramanathan, A., Bhattacharya, P., Dittmar, T., Prasad, B., Neupane, B. (eds.) Management and sustainable development of coastal zone environments, p. 42—57. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-3068-9_3.
38. Morrissey, S. 1988, Estuaries: Concern over troubled waters, Oceans, no. 21, p. 23—26.
39. Pak, A., Farajzadeh, M. 2007, Iran’s Integrated Coastal Management plan: Persian Gulf, Oman Sea, and southern Caspian Sea coastline, Ocean and Coastal Management, no. 50, p. 754—773. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2007.03.006
40. Pernetta, J.C., Elder, D.L. 1992, Climate, sea-level rise and the coastal zone: Management and planning for global changes, Ocean and Coastal Management, no. 18, p. 113—160.
41. Salnikov, S.S. 1984, Economic geography of the ocean — a new promising direction of economic and social geography, Leningrad, Science.
42. Hassan, R., Scholes, R., Ash, N. 2005, Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current Status and Trends, vol. 1, Island Press.
43. El Barmelgy, I.M., Rasheed, S.E.A. 2016, Sustainable Coastal Cities between Theory and Practice (Case Study: Egyptian Coastal Cities), Journal of Sustainable Development, vol. 9, no. 4, p. 216—224.
44. Barragán, J.M., de Andrés, M. 2015, Analysis and trends of the world’s coastal cities and agglomerations, Ocean and Coastal Management, no. 114, p. 11—20. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.06.004.
45. Martinez, M.L., Intralawana, A., Vázquezb, G., Pérez-Maqueoa, O., Suttond, P., Landgraveb, R. 2007, The coasts of our world: Ecological, economic and social importance, Ecological economics, vol. 6, no. 3, p. 254—272.
46. Nicholls, R.J., Wong, P. P. Burkett, V. R. Codignotto, J. O. Hay, J.E., McLean, R.F., Ragoonaden, S., Woodroffe, C.D. 2007, Coastal systems and low-lying areas. In: Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J., Hanson, C.E. (eds.) Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, p. 315—356.
47. Small, C., Gornitz, V., Cohen, J.E., 2000, Coastal hazards and the global distribution of human population, Environmental Geosciences, no. 7, p. 3—12.
48. Arakelov, M.S. 2011, Geoecological zoning of the coastal territories of the Tuapse region based on the indicator approach, Scientific notes of the Russian State Hydrometeorological University, no. 18, p. 170—172.
49. Hinrichsen, D. 1996, Coasts in Crisis, Issues in Science and Technology, vol. 12, no. 4, p. 39—47.
50. Ngoile, M., Horrill, C. 1993, Coastal ecosystems, productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management, Ambio, no. 22, p. 461—467.
51. Wilson, M.A., Costanza, R., Boumans, R., Liu, S. 2005, Integrated assessment and valuation of ecosystem goods and services provided by coastal systems. In: Wilson, J.G. (ed.) The Intertidal Ecosystem: The Value of Ireland’s Shores, p. 1—24, Dublin, Royal Irish Academy.
52. Balaguer, P., Sarda, R., Ruiz, M., Diedrich, A., Vizoso, G., Tintor, J. 2008, A proposal for boundary delimitation for integrated coastal zone management initiatives, Ocean Coastal Management, no. 51, p. 806—814. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2008.08.003.