The Tourist and Recreation Potential of Historical Cities in North-West Russia
In recent years, the development of historical cities has been high on research agenda. This is explained by the growing role of tourism and recreation in socioeconomic development and the persisting problem of the national economy’s spatial organisation amidst the absence of a clear-cut regional policy. The authors stress the discrepancy between the distribution of economic activities and the established system of settlement. This is particularly true for many historical cities, whose economic resources have been curtailed. This study provides a rationale for a more efficient use of the tourist and recreational potential to boost the socio-economic development of Russia’s historical cities. The article describes problems of the cities’ development using the country’s North-West as an example. The authors explore factors behind the formation of a new development strategy for historical cities and analyse conditions necessary for the efficient exploitation of the historical cities’ tourism and recreation potential. The findings obtained suggest that strategic areas of tourism and recreation development in Russia’s historical cities should be identified depending on city type, development conditions and other relevant factors.
1. Alekseeva, L. I. 1998, The fate of small historical towns in the European North of Russia: the formulation of the problem, Izv. RGO, no. 1. (in Russ.)
2. Alferov, G. V. 1989, Russkie goroda XVI—XVII vekov [Russian towns of the XVI—XVII centuries], Moscow. (in Russ.)
3. Buldakova, N. B. 2009, Criteria for the selection of a group of historic towns, Vestnik Shadrinskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta [Bulletin of Shadrinsky State Pedagogical University], no. 4, p. 228—232.
4. Wagner, G. K. 1988, Old Russian towns, Guide-Guide Publishing House of Art, Moscow.
5. Vedenin Yu. A. 1990, Problemy vozniknoveniya i razvitiya unikal'nykh istoricheskikh territorii [Problems of the origin and development of unique historical territories], Moscow. (in Russ.)
6. Lappo, G. M. (ed.) 1994, Goroda Rossii [Towns of Russia], encyclopedia, Moscow. (in Russ.)
7. Darinsky, A. V. 1979, Leningradskaya oblast' [Leningrad Region], 2nd ed., Leningrad. (in Russ.)
8. Istoricheskaya geografiya Rossii XVIII veka [Historical geography of Russia of the XVIII century], 1981, Part 1. Goroda, promyshlennost', torgovlya [Cities, industry, trade], Moscow. (in Russ.)
9. Historical towns of Russia: preservation and development, 2011, Anal. Report. Council of the Fed. Fed. SOBR. Russia. (in Russ.)
10. Istoricheskie goroda SSSR [Historical towns of the USSR. New and old], 1987, Moscow. (in Russ.)
11. Katrovsky, A. P. Kovalev, Yu. P., Mazhar, L. Yu., Shcherbakova, S. A. 2017, Tourism in Border Regions: Theoretical Aspects of a Geographical Study, Balt. Reg., Vol. 9, no. 1, p. 81—90. doi: 10.5922/2079-8555-2017-1-7.
12. Krogius, V. R. 2009, Istoricheskie goroda Rossii kak fenomen ee kul'turnogo naslediya [Historical towns of Russia as a phenomenon of its cultural heritage], Moscow. (in Russ.)
13. Kuza, A. V. 1989, Nebol'shie goroda drevnei Rusi [Small towns of ancient Russia], Moscow. (in Russ.)
14. Lappo, G. M. 1997, Geografiya gorodov [Geography of towns], Moscow. (in Russ.)
15. Lothareva, R. M. 1993, Goroda Rossii, XVIII — pervaya polovina XIX veka [Towns-plants of Russia, XVIII — first half of the XIX century], Ekaterinburg. (in Russ.)
16. On objects of cultural heritage (monuments of history and culture) of the peoples of the Russian Federation, 2002, June 25, No. 73-FZ. (in Russ.)
17. On the approval of the list of historical settlements. Order of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation of July 27, 2010, No. 418. (in Russ.)
18. List of settlements with the status of historic towns. Fed. Target Program "Preservation and Development of the Architecture of Historic Cities". Fast. Etc. The Russian Federation from 26.11.2001, № 815. (in Russ.)
19. The RSFSR. Administrative-territorial division (on January 1, 1986), 1986, Izvestia. (in Russ.)
20. Russkii gorod. Istoriko-metodologicheskii sbornik [Russian city. Historical and methodological collection], 1976—1990, Moscow, p. 1—9. (in Russ.)
21. List of historical settlements of the RSFSR. Fast. Collegium of the Ministry of Culture of the RSFSR of February 19, 1990, No. 12. (in Russ.)
22. Tikhomirov, M. N. 1956, Starorusskie goroda [Old Russian towns], Moscow. (in Russ.)
23. Shamakhov, V. A., Khodachek, V. M., Elsukov, M. Yu. 2016, Upravlenie sotsial'no-ekonomicheskim razvitiem i turistsko-rekreatsionnoi deyatel'nost'yu na federal'nom, regional'nom i mestnom urovnyakh: tipologicheskii podkhod [Management of social and economic development and tourist-recreational activities at the federal, regional and local levels: a typological approach], St. Petersburg. (in Russ.)
24. Fedorov, G. M. 1986, Karta Kaliningradskoi oblasti [The map of the Kaliningrad Region], Kaliningrad.
25. Fedorov, G. M., Mikhailov, A. S., Kuznetsova, T. Yu. 2017, The influence of the sea on the economic development and settlement structure in the Baltic Sea region, Balt. Reg., Vol. 9, no. 2, p. 4—18. doi: 10.5922/2079-8555-2017-2-1.
26. Carriere, F., Pinchemel, P. 1963, Le fait urbaine en France, Paris, p.346.
27. Eurostat, available at: http://ec.europa.on/eurostat (accessed 07.07.2017).
28. George, P. 1960, Question de geographie de la population, Paris, p.229.
29. Harris, C. D. 1970, Cities of the Soviet Union, Chicago, p. 484.
30. Joenniemi, P., Sergunin, A. 2011, Sity-Twinning in Northern Europe: Challenger and Opportunities, Saarbriichen, p.108.
31. Brecker, J. (ed.) 1989, Die Hanse, Hamburg, p.324.
32. Kasanko, M., Barredo, J. I., Lavalle, C. et al. 2006, Are Europeancities Becousing Dispersed? A Comparative Analysis of Fifteen European Urban Areas, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol.77, no. 1—2, p. 111—130.
33. Kosinski, L. 1967, Geografia ludnosc,. Warszawa, p. 280.
34. Kostrowicki, J. 1951, Typy miast i siec osadnicza, Warszawa, p. 260.
35. Liszewski, S. 2003, Region turystyczny, Turyzm, Vol. 13, no. 1, p. 43—54.
36. Moser, C. A., Scott, W. 1961, British towns. London, p. 169.
37. Murphy, R. E. 1966, The American city: an urban geography, New York, p. 464.
38. Samsonowiz, H. 1968, Pozne sredniowircze miast nadlaltyckich, Warszawa, p. 218.
39. Town History, available at: http//www.hforcare.com/ (accessed 07.07.2017).
40. Union of the Baltic cities, available at: http//www.ubc.net/ (accessed 07.07.2017).