The Baltic Region

2017 Vol. 9 № 4

Back to the list Download an article

Transboundary Clusters in the Coastal Zones of the European Part of Russia: Inventory, Typology, Factors, and Prospects



This article presents an inventory and a typology of the existing and emerging economic clusters in the coastal zone of the European part of Russia. The authors hold that transboundary clustering takes priority in the Baltic coastal region — nine of the 56 clusters identified are located in the Kaliningrad region and another eight in Saint Petersburg and the Leningrad region. The authors describe major catalysts and immanent inhibitors in coastal zones. The former include a high density of coastal economies, proximity to international markets, and better logistics and communications. The inhibitors comprise geopolitical risks and institutional barriers. It is shown that the potential and prospects of transboundary clustering are affected by both global integration and disintegration patterns, coastal infrastructure, geopolitical and geoeconomic ‘neighbourhood’, cultural excellence, and business and investment environment.


1. Druzhinin, A. G. (ed.) 2017, Transgranichnoe klasteroobrazovanie v primorskikh zonakh Evropeiskoi chasti Rossii: faktory, modeli, ekonomicheskie i ekisticheskie effekty [Transboundary cluster formation in the coastal zones of the European part of Russia: factors, models, economic and telecommunication effects], Rostov-on-Don, 421 p. (in Russ.)
2. Fedorov, G. M., Korneevets, V. S. 2015, Socioeconomic typology of Russia’s coastal regions, Balt. Reg., Vol. 7, no. 2, p. 89—101. doi: 10.5922/2079-8555-2015-4-7.
3. Fedorov G. M., Kuznetsova T. Yu., Razumovskii V. M. 2017, How the Proximity of the Sea Affects Development of Economy and the Settlement Pattern in Kaliningrad Oblast, Regional Research of Russia, Vol. 7, no. 4, p. 352—362.
4. Strategiya natsional'noi bezopasnosti Rossii [The National Security Strategy of Russia], 2015, Moscow, available at: Authority/president (accessed 31.08.2017) (in Russ.)
5. Druzhinin, A. G. 2017, The coastalisation of population in today’s Russia: A sociogeographical explication, Balt. Reg., Vol. 9, no. 2, p. 28—43.
6. Druzhinin, A. G. 2016 "Marine component" of Russian social geography: traditions and innovations, Izvestiya RAN. Seriya geograficheskaya [Regional Research of Russia], no. 6, p. 7—16. (in Russ.)
7. Slack, B. 1989, The port service industry in an environment of change, Geoforum, Vol. 20, no. 4, p. 447—457.
8. Porter, M. E. 1990, The Competitive Advantage of Nations, New York.
9. Enright, M. J., Roberts, B. H. 2001, Regional clustering in Australia, Australian Journal of Management, Special Issue, no. 26, p. 65—86.
10. Lofgren, O. 2008, Regionauts: The transformation of cross-border regions in Scandinavia, European Urban and Regional Studies, no. 15, p. 195—209.
11. Lundquist, K.-J., Trippl, M. 2011, Distance, Proximity and Types of Crossborder Innovation Systems: A Conceptual Analysis, Regional Studies, no. 1, p. 11.
12. Broek, J., Smulders, H. 2013, The evolution of a Cross-Border Regional Innovcational System: An Institutional Perspective, Conference paper RSA European Comference, Tampere.
13. McDonald, F., Tsagdis, D., Huang, D. 2006, The development of industrial clusters and public policy, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, Vol. 18, no. 6, p. 525—542.
14. Vazhenin, S. G., Sukhikh, V. V. 2009, Difficulties in the formation of clusters in Russia, Ekonomika regiona [Economy of the region], no. 2, p. 169—179. (in Russ.)
15. Kotlyarova, S. N. 2012, The practice of forming clusters in the regions of Russia, Regional'naya ekonomika: teoriya i praktika [Regional economy: theory andpractice], no. 24, p. 29—39. (in Russ.)
16. Zelinskaya, E. Z. 2013, Regional cross-border clusters as forms of modern management systems in the real sector of the economy, Pskovskii regionologicheskii zhurnal [Pskov Regionological Journal], № 16, p. 12—18. (in Russ.)
17. Gokhberg, L. M., Shadrin, A. E., Abashkin, V. L., Goland, L. M., Kutsenko, E. S., Rudnik, P. B. 2013, Pilotnye innovatsionnye territorial'nye klastery v Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Pilot Innovative Territorial Clusters in the Russian Federation], Moscow. (in Russ.)
18. Clusters in the federal legislation and the legislation of the city of Moscow, CCI RF on the development of subcontracting and cluster technologies, available at: php/about-zak-cls/139-klasteri-v-zakonodatelstve.htm (accessed 28.08.2017). (in Russ.)
19. The concept of long-term socio-economic development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020, available at: (accessed 28.08.2017). (in Russ.)
20. Bilchak, V. S., Bilchak, M. V. 2015, Integration as a dominant development of border regions, Aktual'nye voprosy ekonomicheskikh nauk [Topical issues of economic sciences], no. 47, p. 109—114. (in Russ.)
21. Baturova, G. V. 2012, Regional sea economic clusters as a basis for socioeconomic development of coastal areas, Transportnoe delo Rossii [Transport business in Russia], no. 6 (2), p. 40—42. (in Russ.)
22. Walerud, C., Viachka, A. 2007, Transnational networks of cluster organizations, Stockholm.
23. United Shipbuilding Corporation, available at: (accessed 25.08.2017). (in Russ.)