The Baltic Region

2017 Vol. 9 № 1

Back to the list Download an article

Land Use Policy and Land Management in Estonia



This article studies the effect of land reform on the development of current land policy and land management efficiency. The authors present a review of materials focusing on the new land policy, land management and land use system at a new stage of Estonian development. This policy has led to the adoption of a new reform aimed at the municipalisation, privatisation, and denationalisation of real estate. The article describes mechanisms of the Romano-Germanic land management model, which has replaced the Soviet model in Estonia. It is shown that the model’s introduction has contributed to the development of the Republic’s land market and increased land use efficiency, in particular, in agriculture. There are positive trends towards land market development and an increase in production and investment in land use. Estonian land resources are a reliable strategic investment.


1. Lemmen, Chr., van Oosterom, P., Bennett, R. 2015, The Land Administration Domain Model, Land Use Policy, Vol. 49, December, p. 535—545. DOI: 10.1016/j. landusepol.2015.01.014.

2. Lambin, E. F., Meyfroidt, P. 2010, Land use transitions: Socio-ecological feedback versus socio-economic change, Land Use Policy, Vol. 27, no. 2, April, p. 108—118. DOI: 10.1016/j. landusepol.2009.09.003.

3. The law of the Estonian Republic "On land reform", 1991, 17.10.1991, avail­able at: (accessed 10.05.2015).

4. The law of the Republic of Estonia "About property right", 1993, 9.06.1993, avai­lable at: (accessed 10.05.2015).

5. Anosova, L. A., Yaskina, G. S. 1996, Estonian agrarian reform, Vestnik Rossi­iskoi akademii nauk. Seriya geograficheskaya [Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Geographical series], Vol. 66, no. 7, p. 645—650. (In Russ.)

6. Encyclopedia about Estonia, 2015, available at: (accessed 15.09.2015).

7. The official website of the Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Estonia, 2015, available at: http://www. envir. ee/ (accessed 15.09.2015).

8. Varlamov, A. A. (ed.) 2006, Teoriya i metody upravleniya zemel'nymi resur­sami v usloviyakh mnogoobraziya form sobstvennosti na zemlyu [Theory and meth­ods of land resources management in conditions of the variety of forms of land own­ership], Moscow. (In Russ)

9. Bogdanov, V. L., Garmanov, V. V., Zasyad'-Volk, V. V., Osipov, G. K. (eds.) 2010, Upravlenie zemel'nymi resursami [Land resourses management], St. Peters­burg. (In Russ.)

10. The official website of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2015, available at: http://www. fao. org/ (accessed 15.09.2015).

11. "Categories of land and the use thereof", 2008, The decree of the Govern­ment of the Republic of Estonia № 155, 23.10.2008, available at: https://www. (accessed 10.05.2015).

12. van Vliet, J., de Groot, H. L. F., Rietveld, P., Verburg, P. H. 2015, Manifesta­tions and underlying drivers of agricultural land use change in Europe, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 133, p. 24—36. DOI: 10.1016/j. landurbplan.2014.09.001.

13.Garmanov, V. V., Badenko, V. L., Trutnikov, V. E. 2013, Assessment of the rent of land in the land development projects, Gornyi informatsionno-analiticheskii byulleten' (nauchno-tekhnicheskii zhurnal) [Mining information and analytical Bul­letin (scientific and technical journal)], no. 8, p. 225—231. (In Russ.)

14. Mezenina, O. B., Lantanova, A. V., Rasskazova, A. A. 2012, Upravlenie ze­mel'nymi resursami [Land Management], Guidelines for the study of the discipline, Ekaterinburg. (In Russ.)

15. Law of the Republic of Estonia on 06.05.1993 (ed. By 12.03. 2008) "On Land Tax", 2008, available at: (accessed 10.05.2015).

16. Okunev, Ju. 2015, The tax system of the Baltic States — Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, available at:
countries (accessed 17.11.2015). (In Russ.)