The Baltic Region

2016 Issue №4

Back to the list Download an article

Geopolitical and Geo-economic Changes in the Baltic Sea Region at the Turn of the XX—XXI centuries

DOI
10.5922/2079-8555-2016-4-2
Pages
13-25

Abstract

The article describes the process and results of the geopolitical and geoeconomic changes in the Baltic Sea region at the turn of the XX and XXI centuries. The authors assess the political, economic and military potential of individual countries and groups of countries. Ranking the selected countries and grouping them according to the similarity of their characteristics requires a variety of methods — the economic, statistical, cartographic, graphic-analytical methods, to name just a few. In the late 1980s — early 1990s, there were three socialist countries in the Baltic Sea region. They were signatories of the Warsaw Pact and members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (the Soviet Union, Poland and East Germany). The Baltic Sea region housed four market economies (Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Germany). Only two of them were members of NATO and the EU (Germany and Denmark). At present, there are eight EU countries in the region; six of them are NATO members (Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia), and the same two countries, Sweden and Finland, remain outside the bloc. Russia, the legal successor of the USSR, is neither a NATO, nor an EU member. The authors explore similarities and differences between countries of the Baltic Sea region in terms of their territory, population, GDP, foreign trade turnover and the number of regular armed forces. The article stresses the importance of international cooperation in increasing the growth rates of economic development of all countries of the Baltic Sea region.

Reference

1. Gutnik, А. P. Kemeshev, А. P. (eds.) 2006, Baltijskij region kak polyus `ekonomicheskoj integracii Severo-Zapada Rossijskoj Federacii i Evropejskogo soyuza [Baltic region as pole of economic integration of the Russian Northwest and the European Union], Kaliningrad, 392 p. (In Russ.)

2. Verkhoturov, D. 2014, Island territories" of Russia, КМ. ru, available at: http://www.apn.ru/publications/article32836.htm (accessed 05.07.2016). (In Russ.)
3. Denisenkov, А. 2016, Military expert: Accumulation of forces of NATO in the Baltics increases danger of the military conflict, Komsomol'skaya pravda, available at: http://www.kaliningrad.kp.ru/daily/26536/3553878/ (accessed 04.07.2016). (In Russ.)
4. Western Military District (Russia), available at: http://dic. academic. ru/dic.nsf/ruwiki/1497548 (accessed 04.07.2016). (In Russ.)
5. Kara-Murza, S. G. 2001, Sovetskaya civilizaciya [Soviet civilization], Moscow. (In Russ.)
6. Kivikari, U. 1996, Ekonomicheskoe prostranstvo Baltijskogo regiona [Economic space of the Baltic region], Helsinki; Ottawa, 160 p. (In Russ.)
7. Kondratyeva N. B. 2008, Regiony Rossii i Evropejskogo soyuza na puti k stroitel'stvu Obschego `ekonomicheskogo prostranstva [Regions of Russia and the European Union on the way to construction of the Common Economic Space], Moscow, 112 p. (In Russ.)
8. Mezhevich, N. М. 2003, Baltic region: constructivist specifics and political results, Megaregion — Network confederation, available at: http://megaregion.narod. ru/articles_text_6.htm (accessed 12.02.2016). (In Russ.)
9. Mezhevich, N. 2016, Kretinin, G., Fedorov, G. 2016, Economic and Geographical Structure of the Baltic Sea region, Balt. Reg., Vol. 8, no. 3, p. 11—21. doi: 10.5922/2079-8555-2016-3-1.
10. The national economy of the USSR in 1989,1990, Moscow, p. 661—662. (In Russ.)
11. Pototskaya, T. I. 2014, Geopolitical interests of Russia in the former Soviet Union: Western border, Izvestiya SmolGU, no. 2, p. 293—305. (In Russ.)
12. Pototskaya, T. I. 2013, Geopolitical interests of Russia in the former Soviet Union: Baltic region, Integration Initiatives Analysis Agency, available at: http://npaaii.ru/info/1/4 (accessed 15.05.2.15). (In Russ.)
13. Russian statistical yearbook: 2015, 2015, 728 p. (In Russ.)
14. Russian statistical yearbook: 1994, 1994. 799 p. (In Russ.)
15. Russia and EU. Reference book. Russia and member countries of the European Union. 2015, 2015, 271 p. (In Russ.)
16. Federal State Statistics Service, available: http://www.gks.ru/bgd/free/b04_03/IssWWW.exe/Stg/d01/148.htm (accessed 05.07.2016). (In Russ.)
17. Fedorov, G. M., Zverev, Yu. M., Korneevets, V. S. (eds.), 1997, Rossijskij `eksklav na Baltike: Kaliningradskaya oblast' v baltijskom `ekonomicheskom prostranstve [The Russian exclave on Baltic: The Kaliningrad region in the Baltic economic space], Kaliningrad, 312 p. (In Russ.)
18. Fedorov, G. M., Zverev, Yu. M., Korneevets, V. S. 2012, Rossiya na Baltike: 1990—2012 gody [Russia on Baltic: 1990—2012], Kaliningrad, 252 p. (In Russ.)
19. Eurostat, available at: http://ec. europa. eu/eurostat (accessed 10.04.2016).
20. Kivikari, U., 1996, The Legacy of Hansa, Keuruu, Ottawa.
21. Kivikari, U., Antola, E. 2004, Baltic Sea Region — A Dynamic Third of Europe, 2nd edition, Turku, 35 p.
22. Palmowski, T. 2013, Kaliningrad — szansa czy zagrożenie dla Europy Bałtyckej? Uniwersytet Gdański, Gdansk.
23. The Baltic Region on resources, environment and economy, 1993, Statistic Sweden.
24. The CIA World Factbook, 1990, available at: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/14 (accessed 01.07.2016).
25. The Military Balance. 1990—1991, 1990, London, The International Institute for Strategic Studies, 245 p.
26. The Military Balance. 2016, 2016, London, The International Institute for Strategic Studies, 501 p.
27. The World Bank, available at: http://data.worldbank.org/ (accessed 11.07.2016).
28. The World Factbook, available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html (accessed 10.07.2016).