The Baltic Region

2014 Issue №2(20)

Back to the list Download an article

The Baltics and Russian North-West: the Core and the Periphery in the 2000s

DOI
10.5922/2079-8555-2014-2-4
Pages
48-62

Abstract

This article analyses population changes in North-West regions of Russia (the former North-Western economic zone and the Kaliningrad region) and the Baltics at the level of urban districts and municipalities. The cohort component method is used to analyze the youth population dynamics in the administrative territorial units of this level, which makes it possible to estimate the international (intraregional) migration of this population group. This method is used quite rarely, yet it is more accurate in studying the shifts in distribution of this group of population than current statistics. The article uses the data of the last two censuses (2000 and 2010), namely, the population size and the age and gender composition. In order to demonstrate the core-periphery relationship, the authors identified the core ATUs (national and regional capitals and capital areas), whereas the other units were grouped by their remoteness from the center. The analysis shows that in the countries and regions studied, population concentrates in the capitals and capital areas, whereas the periphery loses population at a fast rate. The centripetal movement is especially pronounced with the youth; moreover, it affects not only the size but also its structure of population in the core and periphery areas, which aggravates the processes of depopulation and ageing.

Reference

1. Administrativno-territorial'noe delenie sojuznyh respublik SSSR na 1 janvarja 1987 goda [Administrative-territorial division of the Soviet republics on January 1, 1987], 1987, Moscow.
2. Gritsay, O., Ioffe, G., Treyvish, A. 1991, Centr i periferija v regional'nom razvitii [Center and periphery in regional development], Мoscow.
3. Zayonchkovskaya, J. A. 1991, Demograficheskaja situacija i rasselenie [Demographic situation and the resettlement]. Moscow, 133 p.
4. Zayonchkovskaya, J. A. Veldanova, I. Yu. 1982, Migracija sel'skogo naselenija SSSR v goroda [Migration of the rural population of the USSR in the city]. In: Rasselenie naselenija i razmeshhenie proizvodstva [Resettlement of the population and the location of production], Moscow, p. 108—129.
5. Karachurina, L. B., Mkrtchyan, N. V. 2013, Izmenenie chislennosti naselenija administrativnyh rajonov i gorodov Rossii (1989—2010 gg.): centro-periferijnye vzaimodejstvija [Changes in the population of administrative districts and cities of Russia (1989—2010): Center-periphery interaction], Voprosy geografii [Questions of geography], T. 135 (Geography of Population and Social Geography), p. 82—107.
6. Karachurina, L. B., Mkrtchyan, N. V. 2012, Migracionnaja podvizhnost' molodezhi i sdvigi v vozrastnoj strukture naselenija gorodov i rajonov Rossii (1989—2002) [Migration mobility of young people and changes in the age structure of the population of cities and regions of Russia (1989—2002)]. In: Polyan, P. M., Treyvish, A. I. (comp.), 2012, Geograficheskoe polozhenie i territorial'nye struktury: pamjati
I. M. Maergojza [Geographical location and territorial structures: memory I. M. Maergoiz], Moscow, p. 688—707.
7. Catus, K., Sakkeus, L. 1999, Urbanizacija, migracija i regional'noe razvitie naselenija Jestonii [Urbanization, migration and regional development of the Estonian population]. In: Zayonchkovskaya, J. A. (ed.), Zayonchkovskaya, J. A. 1999, Migracija i urbanizacija v 90 gody [Migration and urbanization in the 90s], Moscow, p. 159—183.
8. Kashnitsky, I. 2014, Chto v vozraste tebe moem? At the age of my writing?], Demoscope Weekly, no. 581—582, available at: http://demoscope.ru/weekly/2014/0581/demoscope581.pdf (accessed: 17.01.2014).
9. Kümmel, T. 2011, Stadial'naja koncepcija urbanizacii: metodologija i metody analiza [Concept of stages of urbanization: the methodology and methods of analysis]. In: Metody izuchenija rasselenija [Methods of studying settlement], Moscow, p. 82—100.
10. Leyzerovich, E. E. 2008, Hod koncentracii naselenija v central'nyh chastjah subektov RF posle 1990 goda [Behavior of the сoncentration of the population in the central parts of the subjects of the Russian Federation since 1990]. In: Artobolevsky, S. S., Sintserov, L. M. (eds.), 2008, Transformacija rossijskogo prostranstva: social'no-jekonomicheskie i prirodno-resursnye faktory (polimasshtabnyj analiz) [Transformation of the Russian space: socio-economic and natural resource factors (full analysis)], collection of reports XXV session MARS, Moscow, p. 173—181.
11. Lexin, V. N. 2009, Goroda vlasti: administrativnye centry Rossii [City government: administrative centers of Russia], Mir Rossii [World of Russia], no. 1,p. 3—33.
12. Mkrtchyan, N. V. 2013, Migracija molodezhi v regional'nye centry Rossii v konce XX—XXI vekov [Migration of young people in regional centers in Russia at the end of XX-XXI centuries], Izvestija Rossijskoj Akademii nauk, Seria Geograficheskaja [Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ser. Geography], no. 6, p. 17—30.
13. Rakhmanova, G. 1992, Vozrastnye profili netto-migracii v nekotoryh respublikah byvshego SSSR (1979—1989 gg.) [The age profiles of net migration in some republics of the former Soviet Union (1979—1989)], Byvshij SSSR: vnutrennjaja migracija i jemigracija. Programma po issledovaniju migracii [Former Soviet Union: internal migration and emigration. Program for Migration Research], no. 1 Moscow, p. 217—246.
14. Makhrova, A. G. 2013, Transformacija rasselenija v Moskovskom regione v postsovetskij period [Transformation of settlement in the Moscow region in the post-Soviet period], Voprosy geografii [Questions of geography], T. 135 (Geography of Population and Social Geography), Moscow, p. 245—269.
15. Вишневский, A. G. (ex. Ed.), 2013, Naselenie Rossii 2010—2011 [The population of Russia 2010—2011], 18th—19th annual demographic report, Moscow.
16. Nefedova, T. G. 2011, Rossijskie dachi kak social'nyj fenomen [Russian dacha as a social phenomenon], SPERO. Social'naja politika: jekspertiza, rekomendacii, obzory [SPERO. Social policy: expertise, recommendations, reviews], no. 15, p. 161—172.
17. Nefedova, T. G., Treyvish, A. I. 1998, «Sil'nye» i «slabye» goroda Rossii ["Strong" and "weak" places in Russia], In: Lipets, Yu. G. (ed.), 1998, Poljusa i centry rosta v regional'nom razvitii [Poles and growth centers in regional development], Moscow, p. 135—143.
18. Perevedentsev, V. I. 1990, Molodezh' i social'no-demograficheskie problemy SSSR [Young people and social and demographic problems of the USSR], Moscow.
19. Pyankova, A. 2013, Dannye perepisej na municipal'nom urovne: ogranichenija i problemy analiza na primere Moskovskoj oblasti [Census data at the municipal level: limitations and problems of the analysis as an example of the Moscow Region], Demoscope Weekly, no. 575—576, available at: http://demoscope.ru/weekly/2013/0575/analit03.php (accessed: 201.10.2013).
20. Berry, B. J. L. (ed.), 1976, Urbanization and Counterarbanization, Beverly Hills.
21. Friedmann, J. 1972, A general theory of polarized development. In Growth centers in regional economic development, N. Y.
22. Geyer, H. S., Kontuly, T. 1993, A Theoretical Foundation for the Concept of Differential Urbanization, International Regional Science Review, Vol. 15, no. 2,p. 157—177.
23. Gibbs, J. 1963, The evolution of population concentration, Economic Geography, no. 2, p. 119—129.
24. Hall, P., Hay, D. 1980, Growth Centres in the European Urban System, L.
25. Krisjane, Z., Berzins, M. 2012, Post-socialist Urban Trends: New Patterns and Motivations for Migration in the Suburban Areas of Riga, Latvia Urban Studies, Vol. 49, no. 2, p. 289—306.
26. Plane, D. A., Henrie, C. J., Perry, M. J. 2005, Migration up and down the urban hierarchy and across the life course, Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, Vol. 102, no. 43, p. 15313—15318.
27. Raagmaa, G. 2003, Centre-Periphery model explaining the regional development of the informational and transitional society, 43rd Congress of the European regional science association (ERSA) Jyvaskyla, Finland, August 27—30, 2003, available at: https://www.jyu.fi/ersa2003/cdrom/papers/503.pdf (accessed: 11.12.2013).
28. Bijker, R. A., Haartsen, T. 2012, More than Counter-urbanisation: Migration to Popular and Less-popular Rural Areas in the Netherlands, Рopulation, Space and Place, no. 18, p. 643—657.
29. Richardson, H. W. 1973, Regional growth theory, N. Y.
30. Todd, D. 1974, An appraisal of the development pole concept in regional analysis, Environment and Planning, p. 291—306, №A6.