The Baltic Region

2014 Issue №1(19)

Back to the list Download an article

Spatial planning in the European Union and the Russian Federation



This article analyzes the principles of spatial planning, which form the basis for this type of urban development in the countries of the European Union (EU) and in the Russian Federation. The following principles are considered and compared for both territories: 1) promotion of territorial cohesion through a more balanced social and economic development of regions and improved competitiveness; 2) encouragement of development generated by urban functions and improvement of the relationship between the town and countryside; 3) promotion of more balanced accessibility; 4) development of access to information and knowledge; 5) reduction of environmental damage; 6) enhancement and protection of natural resources and natural heritage; 7) enhancement of cultural heritage as a factor for development; 8) developing energy resources while maintaining safety; 9) encouragement of highquality, sustainable tourism. An efficiency analysis of these principles showed that the level of their application for ensuring sustainable development differs. It is a result of the significant differences in natural and socio-economic conditions of sustainable development in these countries, as well as different experiences and traditions in the space-time dimension. In most EU countries, ministries of spatial planning were established as early as the 1960s; in the Russian Federation, such authority still does not exist. The coordination of spatial development by the Russian Ministry of Regional Development is of fragmentary nature; therefore, at the moment, the efficiency of spatial planning is rather low. The authors find it necessary to adopt EU practices of urban planning in view of the Russian spatial potential.


1. Vladimirov, V. V., Naimark, N. I. 2002, Problemy razvitija teorii rasselenija v Rossii [Problems of development of the theory of settlement in Russia], Moscow, 110 p.
2. Glazychev, V. L. 2008, Urbanistika [Urbanistics], Moscow.
3. Vladimirov, V. V., Naimark, N. I., Subbotin, G. V. et al. (eds.), 1986, Rajonnaja planirovka [Regional planning], Moscow, 328 p.
4. Instrukcii po sostavleniju shem i proektov rajonnoj planirovki [Instructions for schemes and projects of regional planning], 1973, Moscow.
5. Kosarev, A. V. 2011, Territorial'nye rekreacionnye sistemy v rossijskom zakonodatel'stve: analiz i ocenka [Territorial recreation systems in the Russian legislation: analysis and evaluation]. In: Kaledin, N. V., Chistobaev, A. I. (eds.),
Geograficheskoe prostranstvo Rossii: obraz i modernizacija [Russian geographical space: the image and modernization], Saint Petersburg, 354 p.
6. Lappo, G. M. 1997, Geografija gorodov [Geography of cities], Moscow, 480 p.
7. Lexin, V., Karacharovskiy, V. 2007, Prichiny i posledstvija sverhkoncentracii jekonomicheskogo i social'nogo potencialov Rossii v ejo krupnyh gorodah [Causes and consequences of over-concentration of economic and social potential of Russia
in its major cities], Rossijskij jekonomicheskij zhurnal [Russian Economics Journal], no. 1—2, p. 26—46.
8. Osnovopolagajushhie principy ustojchivogo prostranstvennogo razvitija Evropejskogo kontinenta i mery po ih realizacii [Guiding Principles for Sustainable Spatial Development of the European continent and measures for their implementation], 2003. In: Materialy pjatoj konferencii «Okruzhajushhaja sreda dlja Evropy» [Proceedings of the fifth Conference «Environment for Europe»], Kiev, Ukraine,
21—23 May 2003.
9. Pertsik, E. N. 2006, Rajonnaja planirovka (territorial'noe planirovanie) [Regional planning (spatial planning)], Moscow, 398 p.
10. Pilyasov, A. N. 2009, I poslednie stanut pervymi: Severnaja periferija na puti k jekonomike znanij [And the last shall be first: Northern Periphery towards the knowledge economy], Moscow, 544 p.
11. Postanovlenie CK KPSS, Sovmina SSSR ot 20 marta 1974 g. № 206
«O merah po dal'nejshemu razvitiju sel'skogo hozjajstva Nechernozemnoj zony RSFSR» [Resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers on March 20, 1974 N 206 «On measures for further development of agriculture chernozem zone of the RSFSR»], 1974. In: Sobranie postanovlenij pravitel'stva SSSR [Meeting government regulations USSR], no. 9, Art. 39.
12. Kotlyakov, V. M., Tishkov, A. A., Sdasyuk, G. V. (Science eds.), 2006, Prirodopol'zovanie i ustojchivoe razvitie. Mirovye jekosistemy i problemy Rossii [Environmental management and sustainable development. The world's ecosystems and problems of Russia], Moscow, 448 p.
13. Samsoshko, E. А. 2009, Problemno-programmnyj podhod k sohraneniju obektov kul'turnogo nasledija v regionah — subektah RF [Problem-software approach to the conservation of cultural heritage in the regions — the subjects of the Russian Federation], author's abstract, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg state university, 19 p.
14. Shchukin, A. K. 2008, Standarty i normativy v gradostroitel'noj dejatel'nosti [Standards and regulations in urban development activities], Upravlenie razvitiem territorii [Managing the development of the territory], no. 3, p. 18—22.
15. Chistobaev, A. I. 1990, A State Farm in Depths of the Nonchernozem ZONE, Soviet Geography, Vol. XXXI, March, 1990, p. 151—159.
16. Proceedings of the II Pan-European Conference of Ministers of Transport. Crete in March 1994, Paris, 1974.
17. Schuller, N. (ed.), 2009, Urban reports — Urban strategies and visions in mid-sized cities in a local and global context, Zurich.
18. European Travel Commissions Research Group Newsletter, 2006, no. 3.
19. Florida, R. 2008, Who’s your city? How the creative economy is making where to live the most important decision of your life, New York.
20. LeGates, R. T. (ed.), 2011, The city reader, London.