Эмпирическое исследование национальной конкурентоспособности :: Единая Редакция научных журналов БФУ им. И. Канта

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Моя вера – это вера в то, что счастье человечеству даст прогресс науки
Иван Петрович Павлов

DOI-генератор Поиск по DOI на Crossref.org

Эмпирическое исследование национальной конкурентоспособности

Автор Кристьянсдоттир Х.
DOI https://doi.org/10.5922/2074-9848-2017-2-3
Страницы/Pages 44-60
Статья Загрузить
Ключевые слова конкурентоспособность, прямые иностранные инвестиции, мультиноминальная логистическая регрессия, метод Хекмана
Keywords competitiveness, foreign direct investment, multinomial logistic procedure, Heckman two-step procedure
Аннотация Что обусловливает конкурентоспособность страны? Какими свойствами должна обладать экономическая политика, чтобы обеспечить конкурентоспособность? Данная статья представляет собой попытку эмпирического анализа национальной конкурентоспособности с целью выделения факторов, определяющих конкурентоспособность стран. Понимание соответствующих механизмов приведет к более эффективному государственному регулированию условий предпринимательской деятельности и совершенствованию стратегий повышения конкурентоспособности. Исторический анализ показывает, что масштаб экономики и условия торговли играют ключевую роль в экономическом благополучии страны. Хотя индивидуальная конкурентоспособность или конкурентоспособность предприятий являются привычным объектом исследования, в данной работе речь пойдет об общей экономической конкурентоспособности стран при учете эффекта масштаба на национальном уровне. Высказывается предположение, что на торговлю влияют различные факторы, в частности, свобода предпринимательства и открытость экономики. Исследование опирается на данные о конкурентоспособности 55 стран, публикуемые Международным институтом управленческого развития. Для оценки масштаба рынка, объемов экспорта, открытости и размера прямых иностранных инвестиций используются методы мультиноминальной логистической регрессии и метод Хекмана. Особое внимание уделяется условиям предпринимательской деятельности. Апробируются несколько вариантов базовой модели с учетом изменений макроэкономической конъюнктуры. Делается вывод о том, что успех 10 наиболее конкурентоспособных стран обусловлен прямыми иностранными инвестициями, экспортом и благоприятными условиями предпринимательской деятельности.
Abstract (summary) What makes countries competitive? What economic policies effectively influence country competitiveness? The aim of this research paper is to analyse country competitiveness empirically, in order to explore the factors that make countries competitive. This can allow governments to structure their business environment differently, and to elaborate strategies aimed at improving their countries’ overall competitiveness. Economic size and trading conditions have proven important for economic success throughout history. Individual competitiveness and business competitiveness are commonly talked about. The author analyses the overall economic competitiveness of countries. The author argues that trade is subject to various factors, including entrepreneurship and economic openness. Competitiveness is analysed in this current research, using IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook data for 55 countries in the estimation sample. This unique research applies a Multinomial Logistic procedure, and a Heckman Two-Step procedure in its accountancy for market size, exports, openness, and foreign direct investment. The business environment factors for estimation are highlighted. Also, several macro-economic modifications of the basic model specification are tested, providing further empirical analysis. Results indicate that the ten most competitive countries tend to be driven by foreign direct investment, exports and entrepreneurship.
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Reference 1. Bergstrand, J. H. 1985, The Gravity Equation in International Trade: Some microeconomic Foundations and Empirical Evidence, The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 67, no. 3, p. 474—481.
2. Binda, V. 2010, Creating Nordic Capitalism. The Business History of a Competitive Periphery, Revista De Historia Industrial, no. 42, p. 205—206.
3. Blonigen, B. A., Davies, R. B. 2004, Asymmetric FDI and Tax-Treaty Bargaining: Theory and Evidence, Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 88, no. 6, p. 1119—1148.
4. Blonigen, B. A., Davies, R. B. 2005, Do Bilateral Tax Treaties Promote Foreign Direct Investment? In: Hartigan, J. (ed.) Handbook of International Trade, Volume II: Economic and Legal Analysis of Laws and Institutions, p. 526—546.
5. Davies, R. B., Ionascu, D., Kristjánsdóttir, H. 2008, Estimating the Impact of Time-Invariant Variables on FDI with Fixed Effects, Review of World Economics, Vol. 144, no. 3, p. 381—407.
6. Davies, R.B, Kristjánsdóttir, H. 2010, Fixed Costs, Foreign Direct Investment, and Gravity with Zeros, Review of International Economics, Vol. 18, no. 1, p. 47—62.
7. Doyle, P., Saunders, J. Wong, V. 1992, Competition in Global Markets — A Case-Study of American and Japanese Competition in the British Market, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 23, no. 3, p. 419—442.
8. Fedyunina A. A. 2016, Trade Liberalisation and its Impact on Regional Development: Theoretical and Experimental Studies, Balt. Reg., Vol. 8, no. 3, p. 70—83. DOI: 10.5922/2074-9848-2016-3-6.
9. Greene, W. H. 1997, Econometric Analysis. Prentice Hall, New Jersey. 
10. Harzing, A. W., Pudelko, M. 2013, Language competencies, policies and practices in multinational corporations: A comprehensive review and comparison of Anglophone, Asian, Continental European and Nordic MNCs, Journal of World Business, Vol. 48, no. 1, p. 87—97.
11. Heckman, J. 1979, Sample selection bias as a specification error, Econometrica, no. 47, p. 153—161.
12. IMD. World Competitiveness Yearbook, available at: www.worldcompetiti veness.com/online (accessed 20.01.2016).
13. IMF. World Economic Outlook, October 2013: Transitions and Tensions, available at: http://elibrary.imf.org/view/IMF081/20382-9781484340639/20382-9781484340639/20382-9781484340639.xml (accessed 22.04.2016).
14. Immervoll, H., Kleven, H. J., Kreiner, C. T. Verdelin, N. 2011, Optimal tax and transfer programs for couples with extensive labor supply responses, Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 95, no. 11—12, p. 1485—1500.
15. Helpman, E. 1984, A simple theory of international trade with multinational corporations, Journal of Political Economy, no. 92, p. 451—71. 
16. Jaaskela, J. P., Smith, P. 2013, Terms of Trade Shocks: What Are They and What Do They Do? Economic Record, Vol. 89, no. 285, p. 145—159.
17. Krugman, P. R. 1991, Increasing returns and economic geography, Journal of Political Economy, no. 99, p. 183—199.
18. Krugman, P. A. 2011, Song of Ice and Ire: Iceland in context, Presentation at the IMF Conference Iceland´s Recovery—Lessons and Challenges, Reykjavík, Iceland, October 27 2011, available at http://www.imf.org/external/np/seminars/eng/2011/isl/ (accessed 20.01.2016).
19. Kristjánsdóttir, H. 2012, Exports from a Remote Developed Region: Analyzed by an Inverse Hyperbolic Sine Transformation of the Gravity Model, The World Economy, Vol. 35, no. 7, p. 953—966.
20. Kristjánsdóttir, H. 2013, Foreign Direct Investment in a Small Open Economy, Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 20, no. 15, p. 1423—1425.
21. Kristjánsdóttir, H. 2016, Foreign Direct Investment in the Hospitality Industry in Iceland and Norway in comparison to the Nordics and a range of other OECD countries, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, Vol. 16, no. 4, p. 395—403.
22. Kristjánsdóttir, H. 2016, Can the Butler's tourist area cycle of evolution be applied to find the maximum tourism level? A comparison of Norway and Iceland to other OECD countries, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, Vol. 16, no. 1, p. 61—75.
23. Larsen, E. 2010, Creating Nordic Capitalism: The Business History of a Competitive Periphery, Enterprise and Society, Vol. 11, no. 3, p. 636—638.
24. Markusen, J. R. 1894, Multinationals, Multi-plant Economies, and the Gains from Trade, Journal of International Economics, Vol. 16, no. 3—4, p. 205—226.
25. Markusen, J. R. 2004, Multinational Firms and the Theory of International Trade, Cambridge.
26. Markusen, J. R. 2013, Putting per-capita income back into trade theory, Journal of International Economics, Vol. 90, no. 2, p. 255—265.
27. Nielsen, S. B., Sørensen, P. B. 1997, On the optimality of the Nordic system of dual income taxation, Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 63, no. 3, p. 311—329.
28. Palmowski, T., Tarkowski, M. 2016, Development of Sea Port in Gdynia, Balt. Reg., Vol. 8, no. 3, p. 49—55. DOI: 10.5922/2079-8555-2016-3-4.
29. Razin, A., Rubinstein, Y. Sadka, E. 2003, Which Countries Export FDI, and How Much? Paper presented at the 6th Conference of the Analysis of International Capital Markets RTN, Universita di Roma III, December.
30. Razin A., Rubinstein Y. and E. Sadka Fixed Costs and FDI: The Conflicting Effects of Productivity Shocks// Working Paper 10864. 2004. National Bureau of Economic Research. URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w10864 (дата обращения: 10.02.2016).
31. Shastitko, A., Pavlova, N. 2016, Socially Efficient Entry Barriers? Balt. Reg., Vol. 8, no. 4, p. 26—38. DOI: 10.5922/2079-8555-2016-4-3.
32. Söderström, H. T., Braunerhjelm, P., Friberg, R., Norman, V., Sölvell, Ö. 2001, Sweden in the New Economic Geography of Europe, SNS, Economic Policy Group Report.
33. Yorucu, V. 2013, Construction in an Open Economy: Autoregressive Distributed Lag Modeling Approach and Causality Analysis Case of North Cyprus, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 139, no. 9, p. 1199—1210.
34. World Bank, 2016, Is foreign direct investment (FDI) included in gross fixed capital formation? available at: https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/195312-is-foreign-direct-investment-fdi-in... (accessed 14.01.2016).

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