Geography of international clusters in the Baltic region
... [Internalization interbranch complexes (for example, energy clusters in Northwest Russia and
Finland)], PhD thesis, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg State University, 172 p.
15. Shastitko, A. 2009, Competitiveness of the region: content, factors, policies, Baltic Region, no. 1, p. 10—25. doi: 10.5922/2079-8555-2009-1-2.
16. European Cluster Observatory, 2013, available at: http://www.clusterobservatory.eu/index. html (accessed 06.07.2013).
17. Kompetenznetze, 2013, available at: http://www.kompetenznetze....
Islamic Diffusion in the Baltics: The Fruit of European Multiculturalism
... Spring. The Baltic region states are chosen for demonstration. Although they have different proportions of Muslim immigrants, Muslim diasporas are the most numerous and rapidly growing ones in the Baltics. Undoubtedly, Muslim communities across the region enjoy certain similarities. The differences they have are explained, among other factors, by national policies towards migrant integration. This article aims to identify the features of Muslim migration to the Baltic States in the aftermath of the Arab Spring. The authors analyse the timeline of Muslim immigration to the Baltic region. It is stressed ...
Motors for regional development: impact on regional political organizations on the university cooperation in the Baltic Sea region
... In: Politische Vierteljahresschrift, Sonderheft 38, pp. 247—270.
Joas, M., Jahn, D., Kern, K.
Governance in the Baltic Sea Region: Balancing States, Cities and People. In:
Joas, M., Jahn D., Kern K.
Governing a Common Sea. Environmental Policies in the Baltic Sea Region. London, pp. 3—17.
Kristensen, G. N.
2010. Born into a dream: EuroFaculty and the council of the Baltic Sea States. Berlin.
Leuze, K., Martens, K., Rusconi, A.
2007. New Arenas of Education Governance. The Impact of International ...
Towards a Stable and Dynamic Economy in the Kaliningrad Region
... dilemma: a 'development corridor' or a 'double periphery'? The geopolitical factor of the development of the Russian exclave on the Baltic Sea, Balt. Reg., no. 2, p. 4—12. DOI: 10.5922/2079-8555-2010-2-1.
24. Shastitko A. 2009, Competitiveness of the region: content, factors, policies, Balt. Reg., no. 1, p. 10—25. DOI: 10.5922/2079-8555-2009-1-2.
25. Boschma, R. 2004, Competitiveness of Regions from an Evolutionary Perspective, Regional Studies, no. 38 (9), p. 1001—1014.
26. Capello, R. 2009, Territorial capital and ...
Commodity flow model for an exclave region: Rent-seeking in the ‘transitional period’ of the special economic zone
... development in Russia: an explanation of the new economic geography], Voprosy jekonomiki [Problems of
Economics], no. 2, p. 132—150.
21. Kuznetsova, О. 2001, Federal'naja jekonomicheskaja politika v otnoshenii jeksklavnogo regiona [Federal economic policies toward the exclave region], Voprosy jekonomiki [Problems of Economics], no. 11, p. 96—105.
22. Kuznetsova, О. Kuznetsov, A. 2006, Granica: bar'er ili stimul dlja razvitija [Border: a barrier or an incentive for the development of], Rossijskoe jekspertnoe obozrenie ...
Geography and economy of the Kaliningrad region: limitations and prospects of development
... policy, as well as persistent stereotypes that shape public opinion. In this light, integration between the Kaliningrad region and mainland Russia is seen not only as an economic, but also as a sociocultural objective. An analysis of the stages of the region’s exclavisation, and policies of social support stemming from the uniqueness of the economic and geographical position of the region substantiate this conclusion.
1. Database of Indicators, 2013, Statistics Lithuania, available at: http://db1.stat.gov.lt/statbank/SelectTable/omrade0....
The history of the integration between Russia’s Kaliningrad region and Poland’s northeastern voivodeships: A programme approach
..., 2016, Center for European Projects, Warsaw, p. 165.
16. Sergunin, A. A. 2013, Russia and the European Union in the Baltic region: a treacherous path to partnership, Balt. Reg., Vol. 5, no. 4, p. 38—47. DOI: 10.5922/2079-8555-2013-4-4.
17. The candidature ... ... November 18, available at:
(accessed 19.01.2017). (In Russ.)
18. Coherence with the policies and objectives of the European Communities, Lithuania-Poland-Russia ENPI Cross-border Cooperation Programme 2007—2013,...
Russia and the European Union in the Baltic region: a treacherous path to partnership
This article examines policies of Moscow and Brussels in the Baltics since the launch of the European Union’s Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region in June 2009. An increase in the efficiency of Russia’s policy in the region requires not only the development of bilateral relations with the region’s countries but also a dialogue with the European Union, the key player in the Baltic. The ...
Legal aspects of the EU policy on irregular immigration
... http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2015/04/23-special-eucostatement/(accessed 11.06.2015).
30. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. European Agenda on Migration. Brussels, 2015, 13 May, COM, no. 240 final, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/european-agenda-migration/background-information/docs/communication_on_the_european_agenda_on_migration_en.pdf (accessed 10.06.2015).
31. Livija protiv idei ES o specoperacii protiv sudov s migrantami [Libya against the idea of the EU's special ...
Saint Petersburg as a Global Coastal City: Positioning in the Baltic Region
... demographic potential and the advantageous geo-economic situation. St. Petersburg has certain competitive advantages in the region brought about by its demographic potential, port freight capacity, and the favorable geo-economic position of the "sea ... ... through the Pulkovo airline hub and seaports of Ust-Luga, Primorsk, and Saint Petersburg.
1.Coastal zone management: integrated policies, 1993, OECD, Paris.
2. Green Paper. Towards a Future Maritime Policy for the Union: a European Vision for the Ocean,...
Fiscal policies stimulating private investment in the Special Economic Zone in the Kaliningrad region
... Approach to Valuing the Firm. 1st ed. Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999.
21. Rawley T., Gup B. The Valuation Handbook: Valuation Techniques from Today's Top Practitioners. New Jersey, 2010
Kharin A. G., Tomkovich A. V.
special economic zone in the Kaliningrad region, investment activity, special fiscal policies, investment indicators
An economic complexity analysis of the Kaliningrad region: identifying sectoral priorities in the emerging value creation paradigm
... and interregional trade. Based on the EC analysis theory and practice, the study involved the development of methods, algorithms, and software to form a source database and measure economic complexity. The findings may guide the use of EC analyses in regional policies. The article suggests activities for sequential upgrading of the industry in the Kaliningrad region. These activities will facilitate the development of the existing and new capabilities, improve the business environment, and increase the complexity ...
From the idea to the strategy of Baltic Europe
... (“Baltic cooperation”). According to the author, Baltic Europe is being formed as a single administrative, economic, cultural and infrastructural area, which could become a new economic and cultural center of Europe. Special emphasis is given to policies and strategies of the EU in the Baltic Sea region.
Andrulewicz E., 1994, Morze Bałtyckie, jego zagrożenia i ochrona, Państwowa Inspekcja Ochrony Środowiska, Warszawa.
. Ciesielski ...
Cluster policy as a mechanism to increase regional competitiveness
Today, cluster policy is the most efficient tool to improve the competitiveness of territory economies. International practice offers a wide range of cluster policies. This article discusses different approaches to classification of cluster policies and emphasizes the advantages of cluster policy for achieving regional strategic goals.
1. Методические рекомендации по реализации кластерной политики в субъектах Российской Федерации. URL: http://promcluster. ru/index.php/about-zakcls/48-2010-05-12-07-57-03....
The transition process and institutions: on the issue of the standard of living in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe — members of the European Union
... costs in Central and Eastern Europe, Energy Research & Social Science, no. 70. doi:
57. Blacksell, M., Born, K.M. 2002, Private Property Restitution: The Geographical Consequences of Official Government Policies in Central and Eastern Europe, The Geographical Journal, vol. 168, no. 2, p. 178—190.
58. Zubarevich, N. V. 2003, The social development of regions of Russia: problems and tendencies of the transition period, Moscow, URSS (In Russ.).
59. Puzanov, A. S., Kosareva, N. B., Polidi, T. D., Tumanov, A. A. 2012, Analysis of changes in housing availability and opportunities for housing improvement ...
Exclavity as a challenge and a resource for foreign positioning of the Kaliningrad region
... factor analysis, through the method of principal components, the author puts forward several theses regarding the possibilities and limitations of exclavity in overcoming foreign positioning of the region. The economic dependence of the Kaliningrad region on the federal government policies inside and outside the country makes the region “fragile” in terms of promoting its sociocultural image. The article shows the tough dependence on the foreign economic decisions of the federal authorities using the development trends of the ...
The changing role of border regions in the regional policies of the EU and Russia
This article analyses how the role of border regions has changed in the regional policies of Russia and European countries since the early 1990s. The study aims to estimate the efficiency of Russia’s regional policy with regard to border regions (its completeness, a focus on actual problems, etc.) and to compare it with that of ...
Country Competitiveness: an Empirical Study
... International Business Studies, Vol. 23, no. 3, p. 419—442.
8. Fedyunina A. A. 2016, Trade Liberalisation and its Impact on Regional Development: Theoretical and Experimental Studies, Balt. Reg., Vol. 8, no. 3, p. 70—83. DOI: 10.5922/2074-9848-2016-3-6.... ..., W. H. 1997, Econometric Analysis. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
10. Harzing, A. W., Pudelko, M. 2013, Language competencies, policies and practices in multinational corporations: A comprehensive review and comparison of Anglophone, Asian, Continental ...
Equivocality in Delineating the Borders of a Cluster: The Baltic’s Case
... paid to the Latvian IT-cluster. Committed to economic clustering and glocal cluster interactions beyond national borders, the Baltics are an ideal case study for testing our model. Latvia’s mature IT-cluster is an important national growth point. Regional and industry-specific policies should consider the differences between the cluster’s geographical and non-geographical boundaries.
Mikhaylov A. S., Mikhaylova A. A.
cluster policy, territorial cluster, cluster initiative, cross-border cooperation, territorial cohesion,...
Population Ageing as a Sociodemographic Problem in the Baltic Region
... zhurnal, no 14, p. 74—84. (In Russ.)
8. Nurmela, K., Osila, L., Leetmaa, R. 2014, A comparative analysis of the active ageing policies in the Baltic countries, Tallinn, 50 p.
9. Apsite, E., Krišjāne, Z., Berzins, M. 2012, Emigration from Latvia under ... ... Lithuanian Journal of Statistics, Vol. 50, no. 1, p. 39—48.
11. Hanell, T. 2000, Troubling demographic trends in the Baltic Sea Region, North, Vol. 11, no. 2—3, p. 5—11.
12. Juska, A., Ciciurkaite, G. 2014, Older-age care politics, policy and institutional ...
Geography of inbound tourism and transboundary tourism-and-recreation region-building in Sweden
... Interregional differences in the structure of incoming tourist flows help identify the country’s cross-border tourism-and-recreation regions and delineate their borders. This research employs statistical and cartographic methods. The incoming tourist flow to ... ... Farmers, Diversification and Rural Tourism — Challenges and Opportunities in the Wake of the Entrepreneurial Turn in Swedish Policies (1991—2019), Sustainability, no. 12, p. 1—27. doi: 10.3390/su12125217.
4. Demiroglu, O. C., Lundmark, L., Saarinen,...
Political technologies and international conflicts in the information space of the Baltic Sea region
... regional information space and information operations aimed at inciting Russophobia and forcing Russia out of the European political process is indicative of the politicisation of social sciences and the humanities and of the mythologisation of the policies of the regional social structures. The conflict must be urgently resolved, since the political technologies, which cause instability in the information space, damage the reputations of all the states involved. To reconcile the differences that underlie the information ...
The ethnic aspects of demographic processes in the Baltic region states
... for Regional Policy.
2. Ronkina, A. (ed.) Baltic 21. Triennial Report 2006—2008. 2009. Stockholm.
3. Kaszmarczyk, P., Okólski, M. 2008. Economic Impacts of Migration on Poland and Baltic States // Fafo-paper. Oslo.
4. Indans, I. 2009. Migration Policies in the Baltic Sea Region 2008—2009. Rīga.
5. Mansur, A., Quillin B. (ed.). 2007. Migration and Remittances, Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union / Washington.
6. Thornborg, M. 2002. Population around the Baltic Sea. In: W. Maciewjewsk (ed.). The Baltic Sea Region....
The spatial structure of Baltic Sea ferry services
... stands out as a region with exceptionally long ferry routes which sustain timber exports. The main cargo shipping country in the region is Sweden.
1. Dunlop, G. 2002, The European ferry industry-challenges and changes, International Journal of Transport ... ... 9, no. 42, p. 798—822.
8. Rehmatulla, N., Smitha, T., Tibbles, L. 2017, The relationship between EU’s public procurement policies and energy efficiency of ferries in the EU, Marine Policy, vol. 75, no. 1, p. 278—289.
9. Gagatsia, E., Estrup, T.,...
Countries of the Baltic Region in the Global Culinary Space
... Latvia, and Denmark) have culinary sovereignty, since their residents prefer national cuisines. In some other countries of the region (Finland, Estonia, and Lithuania), the public favours the world’s leading cuisines — Italian, Japanese and American ... ... at: http: //
8. Aguilar-Rodríguez, S. 2007, Cooking Modernity: Nutrition Policies, Class, and Gender in 1940s and 1950s Mexico City, The Americas, Vol. 64, no. 2, p. 177—205.
9. Beardsworth, A., Keil,...
Forecasting Actions of Baltic elites: A Scenario Approach
... role of political elites in it. The author pr ovides additional material for analysing possible developments in the domestic policies of the Baltic States in view of external factors.
1. Mezhevich N. M., 2014, Major infrastructure projects and the ... ... Situation and Political Expertise], Moscow, p. 39—51.
5. Klemeshev, A. P. Mezhevich, N. M., Fedorov, G. M. 2015, The Baltic Sea Region: The Territory and Inner Structure, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, MCSER Publishing, Rome-ltaly, Vol 6, no. ...
The Youth in Kaliningrad, Gdansk and Klaipeda: Geopolitical Vision of the World, Identity and Images of the Other
... borders: a cultural perspective. In: Veggeland, N. (ed.) Innovative regulatory approaches: coping with Scandinavian and European policies, New York, Nova Science Publishers.
26. O’Loughlin, J., Kolossov, V., Toal, G. 2004, A Risky Westward Turn? Putin’s ... ... D. (ed.), 2011, The Ashgate Research Companion to Border Studies Farnham, UK, Ashgate.
Kolosov V., Vendina O.
Kaliningrad region, geopolitical vision of the world
NATO Policies in the Baltics: Objectives and Priorities
The authors employ geopolitical analysis to identify the core characteristics of NATO’s current policy towards the Baltic Sea region. After the demise of the Soviet Union, the region was considered as one of the safest in terms of military security. However, in the aftermath of the Ukraine crisis, the region has witnessed a growing tension in relations between NATO and the Russian ...
The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations
....de/nordeuropaforum/2008-2/dauchert-helge-53/PDF/dauchert.pdf (accessed 10.02.2015).
3. Etzold, T. 2012, A country on the brink of a religion? Germany’s Baltic Sea policies, Kas international reports, no. 5, p. 6—19.
4. Hubel, H. 1996, Die schwierige Parthnerschaft mit Russland. In: Kaiser,... ... Reunification, Kas international reports, no. 9, p. 60—74.
7. Krohn, A. 1996, Germany. In: Krohn, A. (Hg.), The Baltic Sea Region: National and International Security Perspectives, Baden-Baden, S. 96—115.
8. Lucas, H.-D. 199,8 United Germany, the ...
Socioeconomic typology of Russia’s coastal regions
... article distinguishes between five socioeconomic types and a number of subtypes of Russian regions and identifies key areas of development for each types. The author’s conclusions can be used for formulating the regional policy of Russia and development policies of its regions.
1. Edinaja gosudarstvennaja sistema informacii ob obstanovke v Mirovom okeane [Unified state system of information on the world's oceans], 2015, available at: http://www.russianports.ru/ (accessed 15.07.2015).
2. Ermakova, N. А., Kaloeva,...
The effect of Covid-19 on labour migration in the CIS
... Haas de, H., Natter, K. Vezzoli, S. 2016, Growing restrictiveness or changing selection? The nature and evolution of migration policies, International Migration Review, vol. 50, no. 3, p. 1—44.
23. Collyer, M., Düvell, F., Haas de, H. 2012, Critical ... ... Concepts and Issues. In: South-North Migration of EU Citizens in Times of Crisis.
38. Kuznetsova, O. V. 2020, Vulnerability of Regional Economies’ Structure in Crisis Conditions, Federalism, no. 2, p. 20—38. doi:
Development of electric road transport: simulation modelling
... account the key systemic feedback loops between the pool of electric vehicles and the charging infrastructure. In the absence of data required for the econometric methods of demand forecasting, the proposed model can be used for the identification of policies stimulating the consumer demand for electric vehicles in regions and facilitating the development of the electric transport infrastructure. The proposed model has been tested using real and simulated data for the Kaliningrad region, which due to its specific geographical location, is a convenient test-bed for ...
The landscape approach to nature management in South-East Baltic
... and suggests using the landscape approach for the optimization of nature management of in the region. Landscape planning makes it possible to introduce key achievements of the landscape science into the existing economic practices and environmental policies in the region.
1. Антитпов А. Н., Кравченко В. В., Семенов Ю. М. и др. Ландшафтное планирование: инструменты и опыт применения. Иркутск, 2005.
2. Гуменюк И. С....
Clusters in the institutional perspective: on the theory and methodology of local socioeconomic development
... Journal Of The American Society For Information Science And Technology, no. 57(11), p. 1451―1460.
45. Yang, G., Stough, R., Haynes, K. 2008, Spatial and functional clustering: a comparative analysis of the Baltimore and Washington DC metropolitan regions in the US. In: Handbook of Research on Innovation and Clusters: Cases and Policies, Edward Elgar, p. 343―358.
clusters, mesoeconomics, mesoeconomic system, regional development
The position of international community on the restoration of independence of the Baltic States
... serve as the methodological framework for the research. The regional approach was applied in order to integrate the features of regional development into the overall picture of world politics. The scientific and practical significance of the article lies ... ... countries and the Baltic States. The materials and conclusions of this article can be used for further research on the foreign policies of the USA, Germany, the USSR, and the Baltic republics. In the process of the Baltics gaining their independence, western ...
Ports of Eastern Baltic and Russian transit policy: competition and cooperation
... competitors, however, the current geopolitical situation has drastically reshaped the framework for transport cooperation in the region. Competition and cooperation strategies are often equally viable for the ports in the Eastern Baltic Sea. Yet volatility ... ... This study aims to understand to what extent port authorities in the Eastern Baltic can combine competition and cooperation policies when formulating their vision and handling transit cargoes. The article draws on official statistics and Russian and ...
In pursuit of an innovation development trajectory of the Kaliningrad region
Amid growing inter-state competition, national innovation policies are increasingly seeking to promote the development of regional innovation systems to intensify innovative processes and to enhance the economic competitiveness of territories. An efficient regional innovation policy requires a territorial adaptive approach to the development of mechanisms for innovating ...
The Legal Regulation of the EU Immigrant Integration Policy
... (дата обращения: 10.05.2018).
8. Action Plan on the integration of third country nationals Brussels Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. URL:
(дата обращения: 10.05.2018).
9. Bundesgesetz zur Integration rechtmäßig in Österreich aufhältiger Personen ohne österreichische Staatsbürgerschaft (Integrationsgesetz — IntG). URL:
Environmental aspect of the current Arctic Strategy of Sweden
(дата обращения: 21.12.2016).
12. Heininen L. Arctic Strategies and Policies: Inventory and Comparative Study.Akureyri, 2012.
13. Joint Communication to the European Parliament and the Council. ... ....php/ru/our-work/newsand-events-ru/54-sweden-on-work-i-the-arctic
(дата обращения: 10.05.2017).
17. Sweden’s strategy for the Arctic region. 2012. Stockholm, 2011.
18. Tauriainen T. Handing over the gavel: Reflections on Sweden’s Chairmanship of the Arctic ...
Energy security in the scientific and institutional discourse in Russia and Poland: problems and solutions
This article examines fundamental and applied approaches to energy security. The authors explore differences and similarities in the views of scientists and politicians on the issue and analyse energy security policies pursued in Poland and Russia (the Kaliningrad region). On this basis, the authors propose rational principles for solving the problem of energy security in the region.
1. Ергин Д. Добыча: Всемирная история борьбы за нефть, деньги и власть. ...
On the formation of historical memory in the Kaliningrad region (1945-1960)
The paper analyzes the development of historical memory in the early Kaliningrad region and the activities of regional administration aimed at identifying and registering monuments of history and culture. The author stresses the contradictions in cultural heritage policies pursued by the authorities.
1. Иванов Ю. Н. Танцы в крематории: десять эпизодов кёнигсбергской жизни : роман. Калининград, 2006.
2. История войн ХХ века ...
Polish-Russian Small Border Traffic in the Context of Russia-EU Relations
... Warszawa. Listopad 1999.
18. Zarządzanie granicami zewnętrznymi. URL: http://circa.europa.eu/irc/opoce/fact_sheets/info/data/policies/freedom/article_7307_pl.htm (дата обращения:18.08.2012).
19. Кузнецов А. Расширение ... ... Варшава. 18 сентября 2003.M. P. 2003. № 51 поз. 800. 18.09.2003.
small border traffic, Kaliningrad region, European Union, Russian Federation
Network Transformations in Economy
... perspective // Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 2004. № 29. P. 468—484.
12. Contractor F., Lorange P. Cooperative Strategies in International Business. Lexington, Mass. : Lexington Books, 1988.
13. Cooke P. Enterprise Support Policies in Dynamic European Regions: Policy Implications for Ireland, paper presented at NESC seminar, Sustaining Competitive Advantage, NESC Research Series. March 1998, Dublin.
14. De Bresson C., Amesse F. Networks of innovators: a review and introduction to the issue // Research ...
International relations of the North-West federal district of the Russian Federation and the New North concept
... in questions of «soft security policy». SPb.
27. Munchau, W. 2006. Financial Times. May 8. [online] Available at: <FT.com> (Accessed 15 January 2011).
28. Mottola, K. 1996. Security in Northern Europe — Combining and Reinforcing National, Regional and Wider European Policies // Visions of European Security — Focal Point Sweden and Northern Europe. Olof Palme International Center.
29. Paulauskas, K. 2004. Baltic Defence Rewiew, № 11, Vol. 1, pp. 107—113.
regional external relations, New ...
Competitiveness of the region: content, factors, policies
The article describes a framework conception of regional competitiveness. The notion of regional competitiveness as well as approaches to the classification of competitiveness factors are considered in detail. The author elaborates a set of indicators of regional competitiveness. The article also dis-cusses ...
When and why regional clusters become basic building blocks of modern economy
In this paper, we examine the modern cluster theory and the specific features of regional innovation clusters as complex adaptive systems. Clusters have become a typical pattern of industrial organization in ... ... triple-helix pattern of collaboration among their participants. Finally, we draw conclusions regarding national cluster supporting policies, including those applied in modern Russia.
Smorodinskaya N. V., Katukov D. D.
innovation clusters, cluster initiatives,...
The Baltics on Their Way towards a Circular Economy
6. Davis, C., Arthurs, D. 2006, What Indicators for Science, Technology and Innovation Policies in the 21st Century, Ottawa, available at:
7. Dobbs,... ... the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Commission Work Programme 2015 — A New Start, Brussels, available at:
Territorial differences in the attitudes to the migration crisis in Germany: The political aspect
... immigrants. The antiimmigrant sentiment, supported by the rhetoric of the extreme right-wing parties and the criticism of current policies, have been growing in the society. This article reviews theoretical approaches to the study of public attitude to migrants ... ... population and on other measures of the migration situation and socioeconomic development. The authors identify northeastern regions with a high probability of popular support for the extreme right views on the migration crisis and northern and southwestern ...
Agriculture produce procurement in the post-war years (based on the materials of the Kaliningrad rural district of the Kaliningrad region)
... Stalin era is recognised as a forced seizure of grain and other products in rural areas. Based on the materials from the Kaliningrad rural district (the only one, whose procurement structure fund has been preserved by the State archive of the Kaliningrad region), the author traces the forced procurement policies and draws conclusions about the efficiency of collectors.
1. Безнин М. А., Димони Т. М. Аграрный строй России 1930—1980-х гг. М., 2014.
2. Государственный архив Калининградской ...