On the possibile contrinution of advection into the formation of CIL in the Baltic Sea
This article offers the results of an analysis of mean annual (1952—2005) data on the temperature and salinity in the Baltic Sea published by the Institute for Baltic Sea Research (Warnemünde, Germany). The data were averaged by months, one-degree quadrants, and 10 meter-thick layers. It was found that, throughout the year, 54 % of the minimum sea water temperatures in the intermediate layer are 0.01—0.1 °C lower than those at the surface of the same spot. It suggests the possibility of advection...
Baltic Cooperation in Marine Spatial Planning
Marine spatial planning is a relatively new area of cooperation in the Baltic Sea region — a site of long-term joint efforts towards environmental protection and sustainable development. At the beginning of the 21st century, the integrated management of coastal zones and marine spatial planning emerged as a new area of international cooperation. Despite intensive theoretical work on the mentioned concepts, the development of a harmonised spatial planning in the Baltic Sea region is complicated by...
Seaside Resorts of East Prussia through Lenses of Photogra¬phers from End of 19th Century to Beginning of World War II
The article analyses the development of photography in the 19—20th centuries, the themes of East Prussian resort photos, as well as the professional activity and biographical facts about German photographers.
Zeigen Fotografien Geschichte? //
Fotogeschichte: Beiträge zur Geschichte und Ästhetik der Fotografie. 2005. Heft 95.
Ostpreußen in alten Ansichtskarten. Würzburg, 2001.
Samland: Ostpreußen in historischen Ansichten...
The concept of paradigm in the theories of R. Merton and T. Kuhn: A comparative analysis
This article analyses Robert Merton’s and Thomas Kuhn’s approaches to the concept of paradigm. Whereas Merton identifies the function of a paradigm in analysing data obtained within a social study, Kuhn considers a paradigm as a key notion at a certain stage of the development of science – that of normal science. It is stressed that, despite differences in approaches, the theories do not contradict but rather complement each other.
1. Mamedov A. K., Rybakova V. V. Scientific problem as a factor...
Shifts of adulterations as the result of seasonal horizontal convection under the shelf plate (numerical modeling)
The article shows that the water dynamics induced by differential cooling in upper shelf area (down to 60 m depth) is significantly influenced by day/night variations which delays an establishing of a seasonal water-exchange in shallows. Convective exchange flows within the entire shelf region in seasonal circle requires 4—7 weeks to reach a quasisteady state. Formation of a linear portion on the horizontal temperature profile can be used as an indicator of the approaching of the flow to the steady...
Inclusive education in Russia and the Baltic countries: a comparative analysis
In this study, we examine the current state and prospects of inclusive education for learners with special needs and disabilities in the countries of the Baltic region (Poland, Sweden, Germany, Denmark, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Norway, and Russia). We present a SWOT analysis of the development of inclusive education in different countries and analyse its strengths and weaknesses, risks, threats, and challenges from a political, economic, and technological perspective. In our analysis, we dissociate...
East Baltics: Economic Dilemmas of Security
This article considers military security in the Eastern Baltic. The research focuses on the economic sustainability of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in the context of military spending. The authors maintain that an increase in military spending can either strengthen or weaken national economic and technological potential. In Germany or Sweden, military spending accounts for a smaller proportion of the GDP or budget revenues, but it is integrated into the general model of innovative and technological...
Polish National Minority in East Prussia in Context of German-Polish Relations (1918-1939)
The influence of German-Polish relations on the status of the Polish national minority in East Prussia in 1918—1939 is considered in the article.
Economic and geopolitical aspects of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline
The Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline project (NS 2) along the bottom of the Baltic Sea is aimed to increase gas supply from Russia to Germany and other EU countries. It serves mutual economic interests: the predicted growth in gas demand in the EU markets and the need to strengthen the energy security of the EU. The implementation of the NS 2 project is complicated by the need to allow for the EU energy legislation and by the expanding influence of geopolitical factors on EU – Russia cooperation, including...
Systematicity of the Critique of Pure Reason and Kant’s system (IV)
This article concludes the analysis of systematicity of the Critique of Pure Reason — the work that underlies the entire system created by the great Königsberg philosopher. The author considers the role of transcendental dialectic (it accounts for more than half of the book) in Kant’s methodology of science and the system of criticism. In the context of traditional epistemological theories, it was an entirely new instalment supplementing these theories and understanding knowledge as a continuous...
On the models of modern research and education pol-icy in the Baltic region states
This article provides a comparative analysis of the mechanisms of education policies pursued by the governments of Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The authors identify similarities and differences in the funding mechanisms, direction of reforms, the role of education system modernization in the innovative development of the Baltic Sea region, and the mechanisms of technological development through introducing innovations in education and science. The general education...
Европейское пространство высшего образования: германский опыт преподавания конституционного права
Анализируется германский опыт преподавания курса «государственное (конституционное) право ФРГ», в частности изучаются его традиционные структурные элементы. На основании проведенного исследования сделаны выводы и предложения по оптимизации курса «конституционное право России», преподаваемого в современных российских университетах.
The author analyses the German practice of teaching the Staatsrecht (State (Constitutional) Law of Germany) course and the main structural elements of the course. On...
A comparative analysis of the development of intercultural sensitivity in university students under the conditions of multicultural environment
This article presents a study into intercultural sensitivity on the basis of a student sample. The author conducted a comparative analysis of the development of intercultural sensitivity in students of two faculties. Special attention is paid to the need to introduce the ethnocultural component into university training programmes.
толковый социологический словарь (Collins). Т. 2 (П—Я) / пер. с англ. М., 2001.
Калининградская область не должна оказаться задворками...
August 1914: the tragedy of the 72nd infantry division in East Prussia
The article examines the course and outcome of the operations of the 1st Russian Army during the second stage of the East Prussian offensive in August 1914. The author used the example of an infantry division to analyse its combat operations in the battles in East Prussia and its disbandment following the operation. The failure of the Russian invasion to Germany at the beginning of the First World War led to the disbandment of two divisions that could not withstand the severity of the defeat....
Workers’ settlements in the Kaliningrad region and their subsequent renaming in 1946—1947
Part of East Prussia was ceded to the Soviet Union after the defeat of Nazi Germany. As a result, the local toponymy changed completely. The author analyses the documents from the State Archive of the Russian Federation, the Russian State Archives of Socio- Political History, and the State Archive of the Kaliningrad Region to trace the Russianisation of German toponyms. The decision to establish workers’ settlements in the Kaliningrad region was discussed in September 1946 — July 1947. Local authorities...
3D-simulation of equatorial F-spread: a comparing MI3 with SAMI3
Group of scientists of the Immanuil Kant Baltic Federal University (I. Kant BFU) in 1989 developed a three-dimensional code to study equatorial F-spread (EFS) studying. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL, Washington, DC, USA) in 2008 developed a three-dimensional code to study equatorial spread F (ESF) also. Comparison of these models is made. Differences in number of ions and the accounting of electrons speeds and inertial terms are found.
1. Haerendel G. Theory of equatorial spread F. Preprint...
The response of different plant life forms to natural environment changes
This paper contains test results revealing norm and stress reactions of various life-form plants: trees — Betula pendula Roth, Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Pinus sylvetris L; water-plant -Galium palustre L.; grass — Solidago Canadensis; cereal — Secale cereal L. Collection and processing of the material was made in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg, Germany. Clark sensor-based method made it possible to determine the amount and rate of the oxygen evolution by plants in the dark and light phase. Under the...
Flupirtine in the complex therapy of diabetic polyneuropathy pain
The author studies pain relief effect of flupirtine in patients with diabetic polyneuritis. In the conducted study, 112 patients were treated with flupirtine: 102 (91.1 %) men and 9 (8.9 %) women. All patients had diabetes with clinical manifestations of sensorimotor polyneuropathy accompanied by pain. The author proves that flupirtine can be successfully used for pain relief as part of a complex therapy in both inpatient and outpatient departments.
1. Левин О. С. Полиневропатии : клиническое...
A competency-based interpretation of professional education results: History and objectives
This article presents a brief analysis of the causes of transition to compe-tency interpretation of vocational education outcomes in Russia and abroad. The authors consider the interpretation of the basic categories of ‘competence’ and ‘competency’ in the education systems of the USA, the UK, Germany, France, and Russia, as well as the understanding of their structure and func-tion to improve the quality of educational outcomes and ensure harmonization with the economic development of the state....
Festung Königsberg in 1945: The garrison and its population. A reply to G. V. Kretinin’s remarks
This article presents primary sources for studying the siege and battle of Königsberg of 1945. The work aims to distinguish between the civilian population remaining in the city and combatants defending it. It is shown that the inflated Soviet estimate of the garrison strength, which was uncritically reproduced by Prof G. V. Kretinin, should be revised as a result of Soviet memory distortion.
1. Вик М. Закат Кёнигсберга. Свидетельство немецкого еврея. Калининград, 2015.
2. Галицкий К. Н. В боях...
The role of the river Rhine in the formation of spatial structure of the economy of European countries (1st century BC — 19th century AD)
This article considers the main historical stages of formation of spatial economic structure of the European countries, parts of whose territories lie within the Rhine basin. The analysis covers a protracted chronological interval from the Roman colonization until the beginning of the 20th century. The author emphasizes the role of the River Rhine in the course of territorial structure formation. This study aims to retrace the historical sequence of the formation of territorial structure of economies...
Eschatological intertexts in E.Wichert’s report from “Dead forest”
The authors analyse the complex genre specificity of the art report “Der Totenwald”, written by Ernst Wiechert after his imprisonment in Buchenwald concentration camp. Three basic intertextual links of this text with Dante’s “The Divine Comedy”, Dostoevsky’s “The House of the Dead” and “Revelation of John” are considered. The authors emphasize the issue of two disjunctive ontologies, forming two fundamental cultural codes of the artistic process in the culture of Germany and Russia.
Episodes of the Klaipeda/Memel Anschluss in March, 1939
This article discusses the complicated diplomatic relations between Lithuania and Germany in 1938—1939 on the basis of archive documents and historical studies. The author identifies the methods used by the Germans in the Klaipėda region in order to destroy the system established by the Treaty of Versailles, propagate national socialist ideas among the population, and spread a positive attitude to the restoration of the region as a part of the German Reich. The author offers a detailed analysis of...
On the Responsibility of the Ideas of Legal Positivism for Doctrinal Support for National Socialism in Germany
In this article, I analyse a concept proposed within German legal science, namely that of the responsibility of legal positivism for promoting National Socialism in the 20th century. An analysis of relevant works by German and Russian legal scholars has shown that the concept rests on false premises and the ideas of positivism had no influence on the criminal National Socialist regime.
1. Дельфинов А. В МВД ФРГ и ГДР было больше бывших нацистов, чем предполагалось // Deutsche Welle. 2015. URL:...
Сравнительный анализ мер воздействия в отношении несовершеннолетних, находящихся в конфликте с законом
Анализируются меры воздействия, применяемые к несовершеннолетним правонарушителям по законодательству России и законодательству Германии, выявляются общие и отличительные черты.
This article analyses the enforcement actions against underage delinquents according to the legislation of Russian and Germany. The author identifies common and distinctive features.
1. Энциклопедия уголовного права / под ред. В. Б. Малинина. СПб., 2008. Т. 11.
2. Jugendgerichtsgesetz (JGG). URL: http://bundesrecht.juris...
S. I. Hessen and the history of Russian Neo-Kantianism
This article attempts, on the one hand, to inscribe the works of the Russian philosopher Hessen into the Neo-Kantian tradition and, on the other hand, to emphasise the originality of his philosophical position in the framework of Neo-Kantianism. The author identifies two important aspects in the analysis of the Russian thinker’s works: his attention to the philosophical practice and the evolution of his philosophical views towards Platonism. As to the problem of philosophical practice, when analyzing...
The problem of antinomy of pure theoretical reason in Kant’s system
A thorough analysis of the structure of the treatise constituting the first Critique and its comparison with the analogous structure of the second and third Critiques show that the Critique of Pure Reason lacks such an important element as the antinomy of pure theoretical reason. Of course, it is implied in the text: Kant’s reasoning is based on it and takes it into account. However, it is not explicitly expressed. Instead of this crucial structural element, which would significantly simplify the...
The demonization of the Red Army as a trend in Western historiography
This article focuses on the reasons behind and attempts at demonising the image of the Red Army in the modern Western historiography. It is concluded that the key factor behind this approach is the aspiration to misrepresent the role of the USSR in the destruction of Hitler’s Germany and the liberation of Europe from the Nazi slavery, which results in the thesis that the entry of the Red Army was not an act of liberation but rather the beginning of a new occupation, which was even worse that the...
Lessing’s Hamburg Dramaturgy in the “codes of hope” discourse of the Enlightenment
This article considers Lessing’s theatrical project of establishing a German National theatre aimed at founding a “school of morality” in Hamburg. In the 18th century, Hamburg was considered a stronghold of freedom in the opposition between the two forms of being — the feudal and burgher’s ones — having become a capital of the new system of values. Philosophy and arts served as a means in this struggle against dogmatism and feudal absolutism. In this atmosphere, a newconceptual culture emerged. This...
Coastal location as a development factor of the cities in the Baltic region
Population dynamics is one of the key categories of socio-economic development of territories. Cities, as the main carriers of innovative potential, need constant influx of human resources. The purpose of this article is to identify the nature of the influence of the cities’ coastal position on the dynamics of their population by the example of the Baltic region countries. The dependence of the popultaion dynamics on the coastal location of the city is studied with the reference to the methods of...
Migration processes on the Recovered territories in Poland in 1945—1950
The migration processes on the so-called Recovered territories, transferred from Germany to Poland after the Second World War, are analyzed in documents and recent research. The author identifies the main migration waves that came in the first post-war years, gives a social description of the main groups of migrants and local Polish-speaking residents, shows the contradictions and conflicts between them and analyzes the difficulties encountered in the process of their integration. The article...
Climate variability in the dynamics of seasonal development of plants in the South-East Baltic
This article follows the dynamics of the hydrothermal climate indicators in the Kaliningrad region over a 30-year period. The authors examine the variability of plants indicating phonological events in the regions. Changes in the blossom period of such plants in spring 2012 are compared to the data of 1893 (based on Der Frühlingseinzug report by the Prussian botanical society, 1893). Finally, conclusions are made regarding the impact of climate change on the seasonal development of plants.
The Baltic macroregion: geographical macrostructures, communication features, innovative potential
The article considers and assesses the influence of macro-geographical factors on communication behaviour of people in the course of transition to innovative economy through the example of the Baltic Sea region.
1. Dinamika razvitija jekonomicheskogo krizisa: Sweden [The dynamics of the economic crisis: Sweden], 2010, Informacionnyj bjulleten' Instituta Baltijskogo regiona RGU im. I. Kanta [Newsletter of the Institute of Baltic Studies of the Immanuel
Kant State University of Russia], I quarter...
On the 20th anniversary of the Department of criminal procedure, criminology and legal Informatics of the I. Kant Baltic Federal University
The modern stage of education development is characterized by new approaches to the departmental activities in the leading universities of Russia, changes in the evaluation of the activities’ outcomes, the functions of departmental heads. The purpose of the research was to focus on some certain activity features of the research departments at the University (the study was conducted using the materials of the Criminal Procedure, Criminalistics and Law Informational Science Department of Immanuel...
Is Hermann Cohen a Neo-Kantian?
The article focuses on overcoming the superficial approach to Neo-Kantianism: Neo-Kantianism is widely interpreted as a one-sided understanding of Kant’s works, their corruption, and, thus, a dead-end branch of the transcendental philosophy of the great Königsberg thinker. The author also discusses some of the fundamental aspects of divergence between Hermann Cohen’s philosophical system and German Neo-Kantianism. It is argued that Cohen created an original philosophical system; therefore, it is...
Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region
The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved...
The ethnic aspects of demographic processes in the Baltic region states
This article focuses on the problems pertaining to the regionalisation of geo-demographic situation in the Baltic region. Particular attention is paid to the influence of ethnic factors on the parameters and trends of demographic processes. The author comes to a conclusion about the achievement of demographic homeostasis in most ethnos-nations in the Baltic region.
1. The EU Baltic Sea Region Strategy Towards a Sustainable, Prosperous Future.2009. Brussels: European Commission, Directorate-General...
The Kaliningrad Region as a Potential Coastal Transport Cluster
The coastal regions of Russia, which ensure the country’s major export/import transactions, have potential for developing special forms of spatial organisation of regional transport system – transport clusters. This form of spatial organisation is better adapted (in comparison to a transport complex) to the ever-changing conditions of a competitive market. It suggests that all business entities of the territory interact thus increasing the competitiveness of transport cluster as a whole. The Kaliningrad...
Land Use Change and Economics of Land Degradation in the Baltic Region
In this paper, we adapt a new conceptual framework for the assessment of the economics of land degradation and sustainable land management to the Baltic region. The findings show that the problem of land degradation in the countries of the region is quite substantial, manifesting itself through reductions in the provision of land ecosystem services. Using a benefit transfer approach, the total economic value of these losses due to land degradation is estimated to be about 9 billion USD annually....
Elitist reasons behind the German revolution of November 1918
In 2017-2018, the historical community commemorated the centenary anniversaries of revolutions that took place at the end of the First World War. Although the revolutionary events in Russia attract greater attention, the German revolution of November 1918 is of no less interest. In this article, I set out to highlight the situation of the German ruling elite on the eve of the war. The absence of bright personalities among the country's political establishment, on the one hand, and the lack of unity...
The linguistic representation of subjective time in Florian Illies’s novel Generation Golf zwei
This article is based on the postulate that there are objective and subjective forms of time. I consider means to explicate subjective time in literature, using the novel Generation Golf zwei by the contemporary German author, Florian Illies. In this autobiographical novel, Illies goes heavy on self-irony to draw a psychological portrait of his generation, which he calls the ‘golf generation’ and thus emphasises what values it holds. The author’s contemporaries, the youth of the 1990s, have a peculiar...
From startup training to the innovation economy of the region and the country
The article presents a comparison of innovation development in Russia and Europe regarding it as a system of training specialists in the facilitation and commercialization of innovations. Building on the analysis of various approaches, the author proposes to strengthen the influence of the education system on the innovative development of regions using various methods, the key one being the so-called start-up training. The author analyses the experience of the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University...
International Migration in the Periods of Transition and Crisis: the Case of Latvia
Migration processes are amongst the most relevant issues in the geography of the Baltic States. The authors analyse the changes in migration patterns from the early 1990s until today. The focus of the study is the recent trends of migratory movements in the case of Latvia. Due to the country’s economic recession, migration has accelerated in the recent years. Empirical results show the response of the migration system to the changing internal factors and external influences in the times of transition...
Between mysticism and technique: anagram the European Baroque culture
The author analyses the history of anagrams in the European baroque culture of the 17th century, shows a rich diversity of literary genres where anagrams are used, and identifies the main trends and techniques of creating anagrams. The article outlines the scope of problems for a future study of anagrams in different areas of contemporary European culture.
1. Алпатов С. В., Шамин С. М. Элогиум митавских иезуитов в документах Великого посольства 1697 г. // Древняя Русь. Вопросы медиевистики. 2014...
Reflections on the history of the Kaliningrad region
This article describes differences and contradictions in identifying the subject of Kaliningrad regional history. Some researchers and media interpret the term ‘Kaliningrad regional history’ as the history of the region per se and others as the whole scope of local history. The ‘History of West Russia: The Kaliningrad Region’, a secondary school discipline taught since 2006, presents an interesting case. The subject of the Kaliningrad regional history has no single definition since it is a matter...
Between accomplice and victim: Civilians during the siege of Kö- nigsberg in 1945
The paper analyses the role of the civilian population during the siege of Fortress Königsberg between late January and April 1945. It will discuss the scope of coercion and the living condition in the city, as well as the reasons why civilians decided to stay in Königsberg. Their large presence makes them impossible to overlook if one is to construct a view of the siege of Königsberg.
1. Галицкий К. Н. В боях за Восточную Пруссию. Записки командующего 11-й гвардейской армией. М., 1970.